The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy: Index

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

I’ve added a simple index to the pdf version of my ebook on daylight saving time, The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy; no indexes in ebooks themselves. This will give people an idea what’s in the book. The numbers refer to the page numbers in the pdf version. (I was going to single space the entries sometime but I think this would mean pressing Shift + Enter about 3400 times, which is the total number of entries.)

DST book cover

Index

10:10, charity organisation, UK, 84, 87

1973 Constitution of the Philippines, 319

7-Eleven, US, 181

A Murder on the Appian Way, Steven Saylor, 7

A System of National Time for Railroads, Charles Dowd, 31

Abamonte, Daniel, 184

Abe, Shinzō, 330, 331

Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 390

Abkhazia, 381

Aboa, Finnish Antarctic base, 392

About Time: Daylight Saving in Tasmania, T. A. Newman, 233, 240

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 364, 385

Abuja, Nigeria, 365, 391

Abu-zaghleh, Hiba, 323

Accra, Ghana, 365, 390, 400

Ackerman, Ernest, 137

Acre, Brazil, 335, 338, 386

Acropolis, Greece, 18

Acton, London, 49

Acts Repeal Act, Queensland, 268

Actuarial Society, Australia, 247

Adams, Charles, 301

Adamstown, Pitcairn Islands, 380

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 365, 390

Adelaide, South Australia, 40, 242, 248, 249, 251, 253, 257, 258, 263, 282, 283, 379

Adelaide Chamber of Commerce, 253

Adelaide electoral district, South Australia, 258

Aden, Yemen, 92, 385

Afghanistan, 36, 39, 41, 315, 363, 381

Africa, 15, 18, 35, 38, 61-62, 324, 344-356, 361, 364-365, 366-367, 389-392

Age Concern, UK, 79

AgForce, Queensland, 279

Agricultural and Pastoral Societies, New Zealand, 1909, 297

Agricultural Appropriation Bill, 1920, US, 130, 131

Agriculture Department, Massachusetts, 142

Agriculture Development Advisory Service, UK, 100

Ahern, Mike, 269

Air Canada, 211

Akers, Rob, 268

Akhundova, Elmira, 325

Akron, Ohio, 33, 167

Akrotiri and Dhekelia, 381, 399

Alabama, US, 139, 145, 147, 149, 155, 167, 168, 171, 190, 191, 376

Alagoas, Brazil, 335, 336, 386

Åland Islands, 37, 369

Alaska, US, 36, 124, 127, 139, 146, 155, 168, 171, 191-192, 264, 280, 376, 398

Alaska Chamber of Commerce, 191

Alaska Standard Time, 36, 398

Albania, 37, 90, 91, 92, 112, 117, 362, 369

Albany, New York, 132, 140, 155, 378

Albany, Western Australia, 287, 288

Albany electoral district, Western Australia, 287, 288

Albert electoral district, Queensland, 274

Albert Park electoral district, South Australia, 258

Alberta, Canada, 194, 198, 201, 202, 207-208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 373

Alberta Council for Standard Time, 211

Alberta Farmers’ Union, 207

Alberta Federation of Agriculture, 207

Alberton, Prince Edward Island, 209

Albuquerque, New Mexico, 140, 146, 378

Alcoholics Anonymous, UK, 85

Aldine Club, New York, 127

Alessandri, Arturo, 338

Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 280

Alexandra electoral district, South Australia, 259

Alexandria, Egypt, 8

Alfred Cove electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Alfred Faure, Crozet Islands, 389

Algeria, 37, 62, 344, 345-346, 364, 366, 389, 399

Algiers, Algeria, 346, 364, 389, 399

Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, 255, 262

Alkire, John, 330

Allen, J., 249

Allen, William, 31, 123

Allensbach Institute, Germany, survey, 106

Allied Control Council, 105

Allies, 56, 61, 62, 68, 105, 111, 149, 140, 350

All-Party Parliamentary Group on Lighter Evenings, UK, 88

Almaty, Kazakhstan, 325, 383

Alofi, Niue, 380

Alteration of Time Bill, 1908, New Zealand, 296, 307

Alteration of Time Ordinance, Kenya, 355

Amapá, Brazil, 335, 386

Amateur Softball Association, US, 182

Amazonas, Brazil, 335, 337, 338, 386

Amenhotep I, 18

America, see United States

American Association of Nurserymen, 182

American College of Cardiology, study, 2014, 190

American Federation of Labor, 125, 130, 132

American Institute of Public Opinion poll / Gallup poll, 147, 149-151, 154, 157

American Meteorological Society, 31

American Railroad Association, 31

American Railway Association, 125, 126

American Samoa, 37, 184, 363, 379

American Telephone and Telegraph Company, 134

Amherst, Nova Scotia, 201

Amherst Federation of Labour, 201

Amman, Jordan, 324, 364, 383

Amsterdam Island, 389, 399

Amsterdam, Netherlands, 54, 98, 99, 362, 370, 397

Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, US Antarctic base, 359, 360, 392

An Act to Amend the Time Uniformity Act, Prince Edward Island, 209

An Act to authorize appropriations for activities under the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974, US, 183-184

‘An hour of light for an hour of night’, US, study, 1917 124-125

Anchia, Rafael, 192

Anchorage, Alaska, 124, 139, 376

Anderson, George, 301, 302, 307

Anderson, John, Newfoundland, 199

Anderson, John, UK, 65-66

Anderson, Kenneth, 254

‘Anderson’s Time’, Newfoundland, 199

Andorra, 36, 90, 91, 102, 113, 362, 369

Andorra la Vella, 362, 369

Andronikos, Greece, 18

Angola, 37, 344, 364, 389

Anguilla, 37, 215, 373

Ankara, Turkey, 364, 385

Annapolis, Maryland, 136, 139, 155, 160, 377

Anno Domini, 9

Antananarivo, Madagascar, 365, 390

Antarctic Peninsula, 357, 358, 359

Antarctic Treaty, 357-358

Antarctica, 357-360, 392-396, 400

Antigua and Barbuda, 37, 215, 362, 373

Antonio Guiteras thermoelectric plant, Mexico, 223

Antwerp, Belgium, 34

Apex Clubs, Tasmania, 240

Apia, Samoa, 363, 381

Applecross electoral district, Western Australia, 286

April Fools’ Day, 342

Aquino, Corazon, 319

Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, 388

Ararua, New Zealand, 308

‘Ararua time’, New Zealand, 308

Arbitration Court, New South Wales, 246

Archerfield electoral district, Queensland, 274

Ardrossan, South Australia, 251

Argentina, 37, 332-334, 338, 340, 341, 357, 358, 360, 364, 366, 385

Arizona, US, 126, 139, 140, 152, 155, 156, 168, 171, 172, 176, 177, 184, 188, 192, 193, 214, 218, 220, 366, 376, 398

Arkansas, US, 127, 139, 155, 168, 192, 376

Armadale electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Armenia, 37, 315, 325, 363, 366, 381

Arnprior, Ontario, 203

Arthur, Chester Alan, 34

Artigas Base, Uruguayan Antarctic base, 359, 392

Aruba, 37, 385

Ascension Island, 391

Ascot electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Ascot Park electoral district, South Australia, 258

Ash Wednesday, 337

Ashburton electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 364, 385

Ashgrove electoral district, Queensland, 274

Asia, 38, 61, 120, 294, 315-331, 361, 363-364, 366, 381-385, 397, 399

Asia Minor, 18

Asia/Chongqing time zone, 382

Asia/Harbin time zone, 382

Asia/Kashgar time zone, 381

Asia/Shanghai time zone, 382

Asia/Ürümqi time zone, 382

Asian Games, South Korea, 1986, 326

Askew, Reubin, 177

Askin, Robert, 254, 256

Asmara, Eritrea, 365, 390

Aspley electoral district, Queensland, 275

Asquith, Herbert, 47, 52, 55

Assam, India, 321

Associated Chambers of Agriculture, UK, 47

Associated Chambers of Commerce, Australia, 249

Associated Chambers of Commerce, Germany, 49

Association Against Double Summer Time, or l’Association Contre l’Heure d’Été double, or ACHED, or ACHE, 95, 96, 97

Association Euro Clock, or Vereniging Euroklok, 99

Association for a Sunnier Society, Iceland, 116

Association of Assistant Masters, UK, 71

Association of Assistant Mistresses, UK, 71

Association of British Chambers of Commerce, 71, 81

Association of Chambers of Commerce of South Africa, 351

Association of District Councils, UK, 79

Association of Head Masters, UK, 71

Association of Head Mistresses, UK, 71

Association of Municipal Corporations, UK, 71

Astana, Kazakhstan, 325, 364, 383

Astor Hotel, New York, 125

Astronomical Society of Southern Africa study, 1993, 351

Asunciόn, Paraguay, 364, 388

Atafu, Tokelau, 380

Athens, Greece, 4, 5-6, 18, 61, 112, 362, 370

Athens, Ohio, 184

Atikokan, Ontario, 214

Atkeson, Thomas, 130

Atkinson, Sallyanne, 269

Atlanta, Georgia, 139, 146, 148, 155, 376-377

Atlantic City, New Jersey, 130, 132

Atlantic Ocean, 295

Atlantic Standard Time, Canada, 209

Atlantic Standard Time, US, 169

Atlantic states, US, 132, 136

atomic clocks, 21-22

Attitude Survey, UK, 71-72

‘Attitudes towards the daylight saving extension: General public & dairy farmers’, New Zealand, study, 310-311

Auckland, New Zealand, 302, 303, 306, 308, 380, 399

Auckland Star, New Zealand, 298, 303

Augusta, Maine, 32, 139, 155, 377, 398

Augustus, 6, 8

Austin, Texas, 140, 156, 379

Australia, 19, 34, 36, 40, 41, 44, 61, 62, 123, 231-294, 295, 297, 298, 299, 301, 309, 312, 313, 358, 361, 363, 379-380, 393, 394, 396, 398

Australian Antarctic Division, Department of the Environment, 358

Australian Broadcasting Commission, 283

Australian Capital Territory, 244, 254, 255, 261, 262, 267, 275, 379, 398

Australian Eastern Standard Time, 36

Australian Journal of Public Administration, 256

Australian Natives’ Association, 246-247

Australian Newspaper Mills, 236

Australian Overland Telegraph Line, 40

Australian Public Opinion Polls / Gallup poll, 235, 250, 251, 265, 282, 284

Australian Railway Union, 265

Austria, 36, 53, 61, 65, 90, 91, 108, 109, 110-111, 362, 369

Austria-Hungary, 53, 59, 111, 116

Austro-Hungarian Empire, 53, 62

Avarua, Cook Islands, 380

Avon electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Axis Powers, 68, 100, 109

Aylwin, Patricio, 339

Azerbaijan, 37, 315, 325-326, 363, 366, 381

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 326

Azores, 37, 371

Babylonian calendar, 4, 5

Babylonians, 4, 5, 12-13, 15, 17

Bacon, Jim, 243

Bacon, Roger, 10

Baghdad, Iraq, 324, 363, 383

Bahamas, 37, 215, 222, 227, 362, 373

Bahia, Brazil, 335, 337-338, 386

Bahrain, 37, 315, 363, 381

Baja California Norte, 217

Baja California Peninsula, 217

Baja California Sur, 217, 220

Baja California, Mexico, 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 375

Bak, Jørgen, 115

Baku, Azerbaijan, 325, 363, 381

Balcatta electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Balfour, Arthur, 45

Balga electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Ballajura electoral district, Western Australia, 290

Baltimore, Maryland, 30, 123, 132, 136, 160, 377

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 30

Bamako, Mali, 365, 390

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei, 363, 381

Bandoran, Ireland, 34

Bangkok, Thailand, 364, 385

Bangladesh, 36, 37, 315, 321, 363, 381, 399

Bangui, Central African Republic, 365, 389

Banjul, Gambia, 365, 390

Bank of Mexico, 219

Banks, Gordon, 86

Bannon, John, 258

Baracchi, Pietro, 245

Barambah electoral district, Queensland, 275

Barbados, 37, 215, 228-229, 362, 373

Barbecue Industry Association, US, 182

Barnard, Michael, 241

Barnes, Christopher, 190

Barnett, Colin, 294

Barnett, L. S., 249

Barron, R. H., 211

Barron River electoral district, Queensland, 274

Bartlett, John, 134

Base General Bernardo O’Higgins Riquelme, Chilean & German Antarctic base, 359, 392

Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Chilean Antarctic base, 359, 392

Bass, Tasmania, 232, 236, 237, 241

Bassendean electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, 374-375

Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis, 363, 375

Bateman electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 139, 155, 377

Battle of Jutland, 57

Battle of the Somme, 57

Baudin electoral district, South Australia, 258

Bay Area Aviation Committee, San Francisco, 161

Beacon Hill, Boston, Massachusetts, 134

Beard, Nigel, 84

Beattie, Peter, 276, 277

Beaudesert electoral district, Queensland, 274

Bede, Venerable, 9, 16

Beijing (formerly Peking), China, 319, 363, 381, 399

Beijing Time / China Standard Time, 36

Beirut, Lebanon, 364, 383

Belarus, 37, 90, 91, 118, 119, 120, 121, 362, 366, 369

Belém, Pará, Brazil, 387

Belfast, Northern Ireland, 47, 373

Belgian Association against Summer Time, or l’Association Belge contre l’Heure d’Été, 98

‘Belgian time’, 54

Belgium, 34, 36, 53, 54, 61, 63, 64, 65, 72, 76, 77, 90, 91, 92, 93, 98, 100, 102, 105, 106, 119, 362, 369

Belgrade, Serbia, 362, 372, 397

Belgrano II, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 392

Belize (formerly British Honduras), 37, 61, 215, 216, 222, 362, 373, 397

Belize City, 373

Bell Laboratories, Canada, 21

Bell, Lex, 276

Bell, Peter, 267

Bell, Ronald, 74

Bellbird Colliery, New South Wales, 252

Bellingshausen Station, Russian Antarctic base, 359, 392

Belmont electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Belmopan, Belize, 362, 373, 397

Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 387

Benfield, James, 181-182, 183

Benin, 37, 344, 364, 366, 389

Benjamin Franklin Drawing Electricity from the Sky, painting, 25

Benn, Tony, 95

Benton, Jay, 142

Berger, Hansjörg Birch, 108-109

Berlin, Germany, 34, 68, 98, 105, 106, 362, 369

Berlin Blockade, 105

Berlin Chamber of Commerce, 58-59

‘Berlin time’, 84, 94

Bermuda, 37, 92, 215, 229, 373

Bern/Berne, Switzerland, 362, 372

Best, Charles, 239

Bethune, Angus, 240

Bharati, Indian Antarctic base, 392

Bhutan, 37, 315, 363, 381

Bible, 16

bicycle fatalities, 68

Bill Frost’s time, 197

Billingham, Angela, 88

Billings, Montana, 145, 378

BioMed Central, UK, German study, 2015, 109

Birmingham, Alabama, 139, 147, 376

Birmingham Philosophical Institution, UK, 28

Birney, Matt, 290, 292

Bisdee, Louis, 240

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 325, 364, 383

Bismarck, North Dakota, 140, 155, 378

Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 365, 390

Bjelke-Petersen, Joh, 266, 267, 268-269

Blackburn electoral area, England, 55, 69

Blacker, Peter, 257

Blackwood-Stirling electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Blenheim, New Zealand, 299

Blewett, Washington state, 124

Bligh, Anna, 278

Blocher, Christophe, 110

Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, 387

Board of Education study, UK, 1921, 63

Board of Longitude, UK, 20, 28

Boer War, 351

Bogotá, Colombia, 364, 388

Bohemia, 16

Boise, Idaho, 139, 151, 155, 377

Bolivia, 37, 332, 342, 364, 385

‘Bolshevik time’, 136

Bolte, Henry, 254

Bonaire, 37, 385

Borbidge, Rob, 276

Borden, Robert, 200

Border Village, South Australia, 40

Borland, William P., 123, 125, 126

Borough Hall clock, New York, 128

Borsari, Luis, 342

Bosma, Brian, 187

Bosnia and Herzegovina, 36, 90, 91, 116, 118, 362, 369, 397

Boston, Massachusetts, 123, 124, 132, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 155, 192, 377

Boston and Maine Railroad, 134

Boston Chamber of Commerce, 124, 132-133

Botswana, 36, 344, 353, 364, 389

Böttinger, Henry, 52

Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, 380

Bouillon, Hans, 107

Boulder-Dundas electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Bournemouth West electoral area, England, 82

Boy Scouts, New York, 127

Boyce, Archdeacon, 246

Boyer, Tasmania, 236

Brades, Montserrat, 375

Bradford, UK, 56

Braga, Eduardo, 337

Bragg electoral district, South Australia, 258

Bramich, Carrol, 237

Brandon, Manitoba, 198, 211

Brantford, Ontario, 198, 203

Brantford Expositor, Ontario, 204

Brasília, Brazil, 337, 364, 385-386

Bratislava, Slovakia, 362, 372

Brazil, 37, 332, 333, 334-338, 340, 341, 359, 361, 364, 385-388, 396, 399

Brazilian Carnival, 337

Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo, 365, 389

Breguet, Abraham-Louis, 21

Bremen, Germany, 52, 105

Brest, France, 94

Bridgeport, Connecticut, 139, 141, 142, 376

Bridgetown, Barbados, 362, 373

Brighton electoral district, South Australia, 258

Brisbane, Queensland, 40, 249, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 273, 274, 277, 279, 282, 379

Brisbane Central electoral district, Queensland, 275

Brisbane City Hall, 265

Brisbane Stock Exchange, 267

Bristol, UK, 29, 47

Bristol South electoral area, England, 68

Britain, see United Kingdom

British Airways, 79

British Army, 57

British Association of Leisure Parks, Piers and Attractions, 85

British Beer and Pub Association, 85

British Borneo, 318

British Columbia Farmers’ Institute, 208

British Columbia government study, 2007, 213

British Columbia, 194, 198, 200, 201, 202, 205, 207, 208-209, 210, 212-213, 214, 280, 373

British Double Summer Time, 99

British Empire, 11, 54

British Employers’ Confederation, 71

British India, 321

British Indian Ocean Territory, 36, 381

British Mandate for Palestine, 321

British Medical Association, 64

British Rail, 79

British Standard Time (Abolition) Bill, 74

British Standard Time Act (Repeal) Bill, 74

British Standard Time Act 1968, 74

British Standard Time Bill, 74

British Standard Time opinion polls, 73, 74, 75, 76

British Standard Time, 73-76, 77

British Summer Time, 56-89, 94-95

‘British Summertime Fact Sheet’, 88, 89

British Time, 46

British Time (Extra Daylight) Bill, 82

British time naming competition, 73-74

British Tourist Authority, 79, 81

Brittany, France, 98

Broadwater electoral district, Queensland, 274

Brockville, Ontario, 204

Broken Hill, New South Wales, 40, 248, 280

Bromley, UK, 50

Brookings Institution, US, study, 2015, 190

Brooklyn, New York, 126, 128

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers and Trainmen, US, 142

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, US, 142

Brown, P. J., 205

Brown Station, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 392

Browning, Gordon, 159

Bruce, W., 249

Brunei, 37, 315, 363, 381

Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica, 358

Brussels, Belgium, 54, 98, 362, 369

Bucharest, Romania, 362, 371

Buckingham, Tasmania, 239

Buckingham Palace, UK, 69

Budapest, Hungary, 362, 370

Buenos Aires, Argentina, 332, 333, 364, 385

Buffalo, New York, 143

Building Employers Federation, UK, 80

Bujumbura, Burundi, 364, 389

Buka, Bougainville, 380

Bulc, Violeta, 108

Bulgaria, 36, 60, 61, 62, 90, 91, 118, 360, 362, 369, 395

Bulimba electoral district, Queensland, 275

Bunbury Chamber of Commerce, 282

Bunbury electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Bundaberg electoral district, Queensland, 274

Bundamba electoral district, Queensland, 274

Burbury, Frederick, 233

Burdekin electoral district, Queensland, 275

Bureau of Economic Analysis, US, 186

Burgi, Jost, 20

Burke, Brian, 288

Burkina Faso, 37, 344, 364, 389

Burleigh electoral district, Queensland, 274

Burlington, Vermont, 140, 148, 379

Burma, see Myanmar

Burnett electoral district, Queensland, 274

Burundi, 36, 344, 364, 389

Burwood Colliery, New South Wales, 251

Bush, George W., 189

Business, Innovation and Skills Department, UK, 85

Butte, 167

Butterfill, John, 82

Byrd Station, US Antarctic base, 359, 360, 392

Caboolture electoral district, Queensland, 274

Cadet de Vaux, Antoine-Alexis, 23, 26

Cádiz, Spain, 34

Caesar, Julius, 6, 8-10

Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada, 184

caesium clock, 22

Cain, John, 251

Cairns, Queensland, 264, 271, 275, 278, 279

Cairns Chamber of Commerce, 271

Cairns electoral district, Queensland, 275

Cairo, Egypt, 348, 365, 390, 399

Calder, William, 126, 128, 131

Calderón, Sila María, 224

calendars, 2-14, 41

Calgary, Alberta, 194, 198, 207, 208, 211, 214, 373

California, US, 30, 136, 137, 139, 143, 144, 147, 151, 153, 155, 161-162, 163, 167, 168, 177, 178, 183, 184, 188, 191, 192, 218, 376

California Daylight Saving League, 144

Callaghan, James, 73-74, 78

Callao, Peru, 343

Callide electoral district, Queensland, 275

Caloundra electoral district, Queensland, 274

Caltaux, Hippolyte, 400

Calton Hill, Edinburgh, Scotland, 56

Calvert, H. D., 234

Calvert, Paul, 261

Cámara, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 392

Cambodia, 37, 315, 363, 381

Cameroon, 37, 344, 364, 389

Camp, Falkland Islands, 334

‘Camp time’, Falkland Islands, 334

Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 386

Canada, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 49, 61, 62, 99, 102, 194-214, 215, 219, 228, 229, 280, 301, 309, 361, 362, 373, 396, 397-398

Canadian Federation of Mayors and Municipalities, 208

Canadian Institute of Public Opinion, 206-207

Canadian Institute, 31, 34

Canadian Legion, 205

Canadian National Railway, 211, 305

Canadian Pacific Air Lines, 211

Canadian Pacific Railway, 196, 211

Canadian Railway Board, 200

Canary Islands, 101, 372

Canberra, Australia, 251, 252, 253, 283, 363, 379, 398

Canberra Institute, 261

Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico, 217, 222, 375, 398

candle clocks, 19

Canning electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Cannington electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Cannon, Clarence, 153

Canterbury Agricultural and Pastoral Association, New Zealand, 297

Capalaba electoral district, Queensland, 274

Cape Colony, 36, 44

Cape Town, South Africa, 44, 351

Cape Verde, 36, 344, 354, 355, 364, 366, 389

Capitol Theatre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 208

Captain Arturo Prat Base, Chilean Antarctic base, 359, 393

car clocks, 21

Caracas, Venezuela, 364, 389

Caravan Club, UK, 85

Cardiff, Wales, 373

Career, South Korea, survey, 2009, 327

Caribbean, 215, 227-229

Carine electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Carins, Lloyd, 238, 239, 240

Carlini Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 393

Carlisle, Mark, 77

Carncross, Walter, 303

Carnegie Library, Montgomery, Alabama, 145

Caroline Island, 312

Carson, Julia, 186

Carson City, Nevada, 139, 155, 378

Casablanca, Morocco, 346, 390, 400

Casey Station, Australian Antarctic base, 358, 393

Cashion, Douglas, 239

Caspian Sea, 325

Castries, Saint Lucia, 363, 376

Catholic Church, 10

Caversham, suburb, Dunedin, New Zealand, 297

Caversham electoral district, New Zealand, 296-297

Cayenne, French Guiana, 364, 388

Cayman Islands, 37, 215, 228, 374

Ceará, Brazil, 335, 336, 386

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US, 189

Central African Republic, 37, 344, 365, 389

Central America, 4, 215-229

Central Asia, 13, 324

Central Daylight Time, Canada, 214

Central Daylight Time, US, 164, 174, 175

Central Electricity Board, Mauritius, 355

Central Europe, 103

Central European Summer Time, 98, 99, 100

Central European Time Bill, UK, 81

Central European Time, 36, 38, 52, 94, 100, 113, 117, 397

Central Powers, 56, 61, 62, 316

Central Standard Time, Canada, 209, 210, 213

Central Standard Time, US, 164, 169, 175

Central Time Coalition, Indiana, 188

Central Wheatbelt electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Chad, 37, 344, 354, 365, 389

Chaffey electoral district, South Australia, 259

Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago, 389

Chalk, Gordon, 267

Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Western Australia, 289

Chamber of Commerce & Industry Queensland, 279, 280

Chamber of Manufactures, Queensland, 265, 267

Chamber of Manufactures, South Australia, 253

Chamber of Manufactures, Western Australia, 284

Chamber of Tourism, Uruguay, 342

chambers of agriculture, 49

chambers of commerce, 33, 47, 49, 52, 58, 59, 65, 71, 81, 99, 124, 125, 129, 132, 133, 136, 144, 148, 151, 158, 161, 174, 191, 235, 239, 246, 249, 253, 265, 271, 276, 279, 282, 300, 301, 317, 320, 351, 353, 355

Chamorro, Violeta, 226

Channel 7, Queensland, 271

Charleston, West Virginia, 140, 145, 156, 165, 379

Charlotte, North Carolina, 140, 378

Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands (US), 379

Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, 61, 194, 196, 198, 208, 209, 374, 398

Charlottetown Council, 209

‘Charlottetown’s war on time uniformity’, 2016, Peter Rukavina, 209

Charters Towers, Queensland, 279

Charters Towers electoral district, Queensland, 275

Chatham, Ontario, 211

Chatham, UK, 65

Chatham Islands, New Zealand, 37, 39, 92, 308, 312, 380

Chatsworth electoral district, Queensland, 274

Chennai (formerly Madras), India, 399

Chermside electoral district, Queensland, 275

Cheyenne, Wyoming, 140, 156, 379

Chiapas, Mexico, 219, 220

Chicago, Illinois, 30, 31, 123, 137, 139, 143, 148, 154, 155, 172, 178, 185, 377

Chicago Herald, Illinois, 124

Chicago Tribune, Illinois, 319

Chicago White Sox, 124

Chicoutimi, Quebec, 204

Chihuahua, Mexico, 217, 221, 375, 398

Chile, 37, 332, 333, 334, 338-340, 358, 359, 360, 364, 388, 399

Chilliwack, British Columbia, 205

China, 4, 5, 15, 18, 19, 37, 38, 41, 294, 313, 315, 319-320, 359, 363, 381-382, 396, 399

Chinese calendar, 5, 12

Chișinău, Moldova, 362, 370

Chislehurst, UK, 42

Chmura Economics & Analytics, US, study, 2013, 190

Chocolate Manufacturers Association, US, 182

Choibalsan, Mongolia, 383

Chongqing, China, 319

Chope, Christopher, 87

Christ, Jesus, 9, 11, 312

Christchurch, New Zealand, 295, 302, 359

Christian calendar, 10

Christianity, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 183

Christmas Island, 36, 382

chronometer, 20, 21

Churchill, Winston, 45, 47, 48

Churchill electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Cilento, Raphael, 265

Cincinnati, Ohio, 30, 32, 123, 132, 152, 167, 172, 185

Cinderella, play, 120

circuit court, Kentucky, 158

Circus of Nero, Italy, 17

‘city slicker time’, 147

‘city time’, 198

Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, 222, 398

Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), 319

Civilians in a World at War, 1914-1918, Tammy M. Proctor, 54

Clarke, Allan, 280, 281

Clarke, Ron, 278

Clavius, Christopher, 10

Clay, Watson, 158

Clayfield electoral district, Queensland, 275

Cleopatra VII, 8-9

Cleveland, Ohio, 33, 167

Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, Ohio, 33

Cleveland electoral district, Queensland, 275

Cleveland Indians, 33

clocks, 15-22, 28, 29, 30, 31, 58

‘Clocks’, song, 49

‘Clockwork Blues’, 2005, Alan Ehrenhalt, 188

Clontarf electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Clorox Company, US, 181

Coahuila de Zaragoza, Mexico, 218, 220

coal crisis, UK, 1946-47, 69

Coates, Gordon, 303, 304, 305, 306

Cobb, Tyrus ‘Ty’, 33

Cochran, Samuel, 253

Cockburn electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos Islands, 376

Cocklebiddy, Western Australia, 40

Cocos (Keeling) Islands, 36, 382

Codacons poll, Italy, 2008, 112

Coldplay, 49

Cole, William, 153

Coles electoral district, South Australia, 258

Colgate, Sidney, 126

Colgate & Company, US, 126

Colima, Mexico, 220

Collie electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Collie-Preston electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Colom, Álvaro, 224

Colombia, 37, 332, 342, 364, 388

Colombo, Sri Lanka, 321, 385, 399

Colonial Office, Sierra Leone, 353

Colorado, US, 136, 139, 155, 167, 168, 376

Colston, Mal, 260, 275

Columbia River, British Columbia, 212

Columbia, South Carolina, 140, 156, 379

Columbia University, New York, 125

Columbus, Ohio, 30, 32, 140, 156, 167, 378, 398

Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station, Brazilian Antarctic base, 359, 393

Commerce Department, US, 19

Commerce Queensland, 276

Committee for the Restoration of Standard Time in Russia, 39

Committee on Sewers, Detroit, Michigan, 32

Commonwealth Act No. 91, 1936, Philippines, 318

Commonwealth Games, 1982, Brisbane, Queensland, 268

Commonwealth Games, 2006, Melbourne, Victoria, 244

Comoros, 37, 344, 365, 389

Compiègne, France, 62

Conakry, Guinea, 365, 390

Concord, New Hampshire, 139, 140, 147, 155, 378

Concordia Station, French & Italian Antarctic base, 393

Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce, Services and Tourism, Mexico, 220

Confederation of Portuguese Industry, 104

Conference of Chambers of Commerce, Germany, 1912, 52

‘Confusion of Time Bill’, New Zealand, 300

Congo, Democratic Republic of the, 36, 344, 365, 389

Congo, Republic of the, 37, 344, 365, 389

Connecticut, US, 32, 136, 139, 141, 142, 143, 151, 155, 156, 167, 168, 376

Connersville, Indiana, 146

Connersville High School, 146

Constantine, Emperor, 10, 13

Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, 247, 259, 260, 289

Continuation War, 113

continuous daylight saving, 60, 65-66, 67, 68, 71, 72, 73, 77, 78, 84, 88, 93, 94, 96, 101, 102, 103, 105, 108, 110, 113, 115, 116, 117, 119, 124, 129, 132, 147, 149, 150, 151, 154, 157, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 190, 191, 192, 193, 205, 206, 207, 212, 218, 223, 226, 228, 240, 251, 280, 299, 307, 308, 316-317, 320, 321, 323, 325, 332, 334, 338, 340, 341, 346, 349, 350, 351, 355, 359, 367, 396, 399

Convention of Dairymen, Canada, 201

Convention of the Royal Boroughs of Scotland, 47

Conway, Peter, 261

Cook, Frederick, 142

Cook electoral district, Queensland, 275

Cook Islands, 36, 309, 311, 380, 399

Coolangatta, Queensland, 276

Coolidge, Calvin, 133, 134, 222

Cooper, Russell, 269

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), passim

Copenhagen, Denmark, 34, 362, 369

Copernicus, Nicolaus, 10

Coren, Stanley, 213

Cormann, Mathias, 294

Cornell University, New York, study, 2015, 190

Cornwall, Canada, 203

Cornwall, Tasmania, 237

Corser, Bernard, 266

Cosgrove, Robert, 235, 236

Cosse, Carolina, 342

Cost of Living Council, US, 177

Costa Rica, 37, 215, 224, 226-227, 362, 374

Cotonou, Benin, 389

Cottesloe electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Council of Australian Governments (COAG), 261

Council of Trent, 10

Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy, Japan, 330

Counting Time Act, 1976, Austria, 110

Country Women’s Association of New South Wales, 254

County Councils Association, UK, 71

Court, Charles, 284

Court of Appeals, US, 148, 157, 158, 173, 174, 175

Court of Justice of the European Union, 96

Courtney-Pratt, A. W., 249

Crandall, Harry, 138

Creighton, Saskatchewan, 214

Creighton, Bill, 211, 212

Creston, British Columbia, 214

Crimea, 121

Croatia, 36, 90, 91, 116, 118, 362, 369, 397

Crows Nest electoral district, Queensland, 274

Crozet Islands, 389, 399

Cruvinel, Heuler, 338

Cuba, 37, 215, 222-223, 362, 374

Cuban Electric Union, 223

Cuban Revolution, 222

Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 386

Cultural Revolution, China, 41, 399

Cunningham electoral district, Queensland, 274

Curaçao, 37, 388

Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 387

Currumbin electoral district, Queensland, 274

Curtin, John, 235, 250, 251, 252, 253, 266, 283

Curtis v March, 30

Cyprus, 37, 315, 317, 363, 382, 399

Czech Republic, 36, 52, 53, 61, 90, 91, 108, 116, 117, 118, 360, 362, 369, 394

Czechoslovakia, 65, 117, 118

Dai-Ichi Life Research Institute, Japan, study, 2010, 330

Daily News, Amherst, Nova Scotia, 201

Dakar, Senegal, 365, 391

Dale electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Dalmatia, Croatia, 111

Damascus, Syria, 364, 385

Daniels, Mitch, 186, 187, 188

Danmarkshavn, Greenland, 229, 374

Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 392

Darling Range electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 379

Davenport electoral district, South Australia, 258

Davey, Edward, 86, 87

David Simmonds Consultancy study, UK, 2012, 87-88

Davidson, Saskatchewan, 197

Davies, Ken, 271

Davies, Reg, 289

Davis Station, Australian Antarctic base, 358, 393

Davtyan, Tigran, 325

Dawesville electoral district, Western Australia, 287, 292

Dawkins, John, 260, 289

Dawson, Mr, 355

‘Daylight Bill’, 197

Daylight Extra group, UK, 79

Daylight Inn, Petts Wood, 49

‘Daylight Savin’ Blues’, song, 144

daylight saving, advantages (see also other headings starting ‘daylight saving and’), 42, 45, 46, 63, 67, 74, 79, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88-89, 124, 133, 137, 217, 218, 232-233, 257, 269-270, 272-273, 281, 296, 308, 312

daylight saving, disadvantages (see also other headings starting ‘daylight saving and’), 63, 74, 79, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 95, 97, 103, 124-125, 133, 188, 233, 239, 257, 270, 273-274, 276, 295-296

daylight saving, future of, 361-367

daylight saving, passim

‘Daylight saving’, speech, Robert Garland, 57

Daylight Saving (Amendment) Ordinance 1935, Straits Settlements, 318

Daylight Saving (Referendum) Act 1975, New South Wales, 256

Daylight Saving (Referendum) Bill, Western Australia, 284

daylight saving / daylight saving time (DST), passim

daylight saving / summer time election question / ballot / plebiscite / referendum, 80, 109-110, 142, 144, 147, 148, 159, 162, 163-164, 165, 172, 175, 192, 197, 201, 202, 203, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 214, 256-257, 257-259, 267, 270, 272-275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 282, 284, 285-288, 289-290, 292, 293-294, 305, 339

daylight saving / summer time surveys/polls, 71-72, 73, 75-76, 78-79, 80, 81, 85, 86, 88, 95, 96, 97, 98, 102, 105, 106, 108, 111, 112, 115, 116, 118, 120, 136, 138, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149-151, 154, 157, 175, 176, 178, 180, 185, 186, 188, 190, 191-192, 206, 220, 235, 236, 237, 240, 250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256, 265, 266, 269, 271, 277-278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 284, 290, 292, 309, 310-311, 320, 323-324, 325, 326-327, 328, 329, 331, 338, 339, 340, 348

Daylight Saving Act 1916, Australia, 248, 264, 282

Daylight Saving Act 1916, Tasmania, 233, 249

Daylight Saving Act 1916, Victoria, 247

Daylight Saving Act, 1918, Canada, 200

Daylight Saving Act 1946, Western Australia, 283, 285

Daylight Saving Act 1967, Tasmania, 238

Daylight Saving Act 1968, Tasmania, 239, 242, 243, 244

Daylight Saving Act 1971, Queensland, 255, 266, 268

Daylight Saving Act 1971, South Australia, 255

Daylight Saving Act 1971, Victoria, 255

Daylight Saving Act 1974, Western Australia, 285

Daylight Saving Act 1983, Western Australia, 288

Daylight Saving Act 1989, Queensland, 269

Daylight Saving Act 1991, Western Australia, 289

Daylight Saving Act 1998, Fiji, 312

Daylight Saving Act 2006, Western Australia, 292

Daylight Saving Act 2007, Tasmania, 244

Daylight Saving Act 2009, Samoa, 313

Daylight Saving Act of 1917, Newfoundland, 199

Daylight Saving Amendment Act 1999, Tasmania, 244

Daylight Saving Amendment Act 2005, Tasmania, 244

Daylight Saving Amendment Bill 1981, Tasmania, 241

Daylight Saving Amendment Bill 1985, Tasmania, 241-242

Daylight Saving Amendment Bill 1986, Tasmania, 242

Daylight Saving Amendment Bill 1999, Tasmania, 243

daylight saving and bans, fines for using / not using, 77, 137, 140-141, 142, 143, 146, 148, 157, 161, 163-164, 202, 207-208, 211

daylight saving and business / the economy, 43-44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 52, 55, 56, 62, 64, 70, 71, 72, 73, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 95, 97, 101, 103, 104, 107, 119, 123, 129, 130, 131, 138, 153, 172, 180, 181-182, 184, 190, 191, 192, 193, 196, 198, 201, 203, 215, 217, 218, 219, 224, 225, 227, 229, 233, 239, 241, 243, 245, 246, 248, 252, 254, 256, 257, 260, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 272-273, 276, 277-278, 279, 280, 281, 288, 289, 293, 295-296, 297, 299, 301, 302, 305, 308, 309, 312, 313, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333, 335, 336, 342, 343, 345, 346, 347, 349, 350, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356

daylight saving and children, including safety, 38, 57, 58, 63, 64, 69, 71, 72, 74, 75, 85, 88, 89, 95, 97, 102, 103, 104, 106, 108, 109, 110, 114, 121, 134, 137, 138, 146, 152, 153, 162, 165, 172, 177, 178, 181, 183, 186, 189, 199, 206, 213, 219, 224, 225, 227, 229, 234, 239, 243, 249, 251, 257, 263, 266, 270, 276, 277, 296, 311, 321, 323, 328, 331, 336, 340, 353, 355, 367

daylight saving and crime, 57, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 88, 103, 119, 120, 153, 176, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 190, 213, 219, 224, 329, 331, 339, 340, 341

daylight saving and drought, 149, 162, 184, 216, 217, 218, 225, 226-227, 236, 237, 238, 239, 320, 321, 333, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 352

daylight saving and energy/fuel/power use/savings, including during war, 42, 43, 44, 46, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 65, 66, 67, 69, 70, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 123, 124, 126, 129, 133, 137, 147, 149, 151, 153, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 188, 189, 197, 199, 200, 205, 206, 212, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 238, 242, 243, 244, 246, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 257, 259, 260, 265, 266, 272, 280, 281, 283, 290, 295, 297, 298, 301, 307, 308, 309, 310, 312, 313, 315, 316, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 367

daylight saving and environment/pollution/climate, 70, 82, 84, 88, 96, 97, 98, 104, 108, 119, 190, 212, 254, 270, 272, 273, 278, 290, 301, 315, 320, 327, 328, 330, 331, 333, 335, 351, 367

daylight saving and farmers / rural areas, 45, 47-48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57-58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 88, 92-93, 95, 99, 100, 108-109, 110, 115, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 137, 153, 162, 182-183, 186, 199, 201, 206, 207, 213, 234, 239, 241, 243, 245, 248, 250, 251, 252, 254, 256, 257, 265, 266, 270, 273, 288, 297, 302, 304, 305, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 327, 340, 356, 367

daylight saving and health, 45, 46, 54, 57, 59, 64, 70, 73, 79, 80, 83, 85, 87, 88, 95, 97, 98, 101, 103, 105, 108, 109, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119, 120, 124, 126, 130, 133, 137, 153, 158, 188, 190, 191, 219, 223, 224, 233, 234, 246, 252, 265, 270, 277, 281, 296, 297, 301, 313, 317, 322, 323-324, 325, 326, 327, 329, 330, 331, 333, 351

daylight saving and lifestyle / day to day living, including leisure, sport and recreation, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 54, 55-56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 64, 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 78, 79, 80, 82, 85, 87, 88, 95-96, 97, 101, 102, 103, 107, 114, 115, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129, 130, 133, 136, 137, 138, 144, 158, 184, 190, 191, 192, 193, 196, 197, 198, 202, 206, 213, 218, 224, 232, 233, 234, 235, 239, 241, 243, 246, 248, 257, 260, 268, 269, 270, 272, 273, 276, 280, 281, 288, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 301, 302, 305, 308, 309, 310, 312, 313, 316, 320, 322, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 337, 339, 351, 353, 354, 355, 356, 367

daylight saving and national / uniformity / harmonisation of dates, 53, 62, 64, 65, 72, 77-78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86, 92, 93, 94-95, 96, 103, 106, 110, 111, 114, 119, 120, 168-170, 203, 208, 213, 215, 218-219, 220, 227, 240, 242-243, 244, 254, 259-260, 261

daylight saving and security, 42, 46, 68, 149, 151, 225, 235, 248, 250, 251, 353

daylight saving and technical impacts, including clocks, computers, 45, 48, 58, 117, 121, 189, 322, 326, 328, 329, 331, 338, 340

daylight saving and terrorism, 322-323

daylight saving and tourism, 70, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 87, 88, 97, 99, 100, 119, 161, 192, 215, 217, 218, 220, 222, 227, 228, 229, 230, 240, 241, 243, 264, 267, 268, 269, 271, 272-273, 275, 280, 281, 309, 312, 336, 342, 346, 348, 351

daylight saving and traffic/road accidents, 38, 39, 57, 66, 68, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88-89, 97, 98, 103-104, 107, 118, 119, 162, 176, 177-178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184, 190, 191, 213, 219, 241, 268, 280, 312, 322, 325, 327, 329, 331, 339, 351, 353

daylight saving and transport, including rail, 44, 45, 46, 47, 54, 55, 62, 63, 67, 73, 78, 82, 94, 95, 97, 110, 111, 114, 117, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126-127, 134, 136, 141, 142, 144, 153, 157, 160, 169-170, 180, 196, 198, 200, 204, 205, 208, 211, 218, 233, 243, 245, 251, 265, 273, 283, 302, 303, 304, 305, 319, 320, 321, 349, 355, 356

daylight saving and workers and working conditions, 56, 57, 64, 67, 69, 71, 72, 80, 81, 88, 95, 97, 103, 111, 113, 114, 117, 121, 124, 129, 137, 138, 162, 184, 197, 198, 201, 219, 224, 225, 226, 227, 233, 234, 245, 246, 248, 251, 265, 267, 276, 293, 295, 318, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 356

daylight saving and workplace safety/accidents, including rail, 29, 47, 57, 59, 74, 76, 81, 124, 127, 133, 179, 190, 224, 265

Daylight Saving Association, New South Wales, 254, 256

Daylight Saving Bill, 1908, UK, 46-47

Daylight Saving Bill, 1909, UK, 47-48

Daylight Saving Bill, 1910, New Zealand, 297, 307

daylight saving bill, 1920, Straits Settlements, 317

Daylight Saving Bill, 1922, New Zealand, 302, 307

daylight saving bill, 1932, Straits Settlements, 318

Daylight Saving Bill 2007, Tasmania, 244

Daylight Saving Bill, 2010-12, UK, and associated research, 84-87

daylight saving bill, Australia, 247-248

daylight saving bill, Queensland, 269

Daylight Saving Bill, Samoa, 313

daylight saving bill, South Australia, 247

Daylight Saving Bill, Summer Time Bill, or similar, passim

daylight saving bills, New South Wales, 246, 247

daylight saving bills, New Zealand, 295, 296, 297, 298

daylight saving bills, Victoria, 245-246, 247, 297

daylight saving bills, Western Australia, 283-284, 288-289, 290, 292-293

Daylight Saving Committee, Tasmania, 234

Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) Party, 278, 279, 280

Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010, 267, 268, 270, 278-279

daylight saving in songs and poetry, 49, 134-135, 144, 159-160, 290-291

Daylight Saving League, UK, 48

Daylight Saving Ordinance 1932, Straits Settlements, 318

Daylight Saving Party, Western Australia, 293

daylight saving petitions, 79, 105, 130, 131, 144, 145, 146, 147, 158, 162, 163, 172, 174, 175, 198, 202, 220, 222, 234, 240, 241, 256, 269, 277, 278, 280, 281, 288, 289, 290, 292, 293, 298, 299, 300, 305, 309

Daylight Saving Repeal Act 1917, Australia, 249

daylight saving studies, 74, 75, 82-83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 124, 176, 179, 180, 181, 188, 189, 190, 210, 213, 218, 219, 244, 259, 268, 277-278, 283, 292, 309, 310-311, 316-317, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 333, 346, 348, 351

Daylight Saving Task Force, Queensland, 269

Daylight Saving Time Act, Alberta, 207

Daylight Saving Time Coalition, US, 181-182, 183

daylight saving time, court cases, 96, 134, 142, 148, 157-158, 163, 173, 174, 200, 202, 221

Daylight Savings Party WA, 294

‘Daylight Savings Time’, song, 160

‘daylight slaving’, 256, 330

Daylight Time Society, Canada, 211

daylight time, advanced time / fast time, mainly 127-214

daylight time, passim

Dayton, Ohio, 167

de Kirchner, Cristina Fernández, 333

de Rivera, Miguel Primo, 100

de Vido, Julio, 334

Dearborn County, Indiana, 185

Decatur, Georgia, 189

Decepción, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 393

Defence (Summer Time) Regulation, UK, 67-68

Definition of Time Bill, 1913, New Zealand, 299, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1914, New Zealand, 300, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1915, New Zealand, 300, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1916, New Zealand, 300, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1917, New Zealand, 301, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1918, New Zealand, 301, 307

Definition of Time Bill, 1919, New Zealand, 301, 307

del Campo, Carlos, 338

Delaware, US, 132, 136, 139, 141, 143, 146, 151, 155, 156, 160, 167, 168, 376

Delta, British Columbia, 208

Democracy Center, US, 342

Denare Beach, Saskatchewan, 214

Denison, Tasmania, 235, 236, 237

Denmark, 36, 53, 54, 57, 60, 61, 90, 91, 113, 114-115, 362, 369

Denso, manufacturer, Japan, 331

Denver, Colorado, 136, 139, 155, 376

Depression 1930s / Great Depression, 112, 116, 144, 306, 332, 335, 338, 342

Derby, UK, 47

Des Moines, Iowa, 139, 155, 166, 377

d’Estaing, Giscard, 94

Deterding, Henri, 116

Detroit, Michigan, 30, 32, 33, 128, 129, 139, 152, 155, 161, 175, 210, 377, 398

Detroit Tigers, 33

Devizes, electoral area, England, 52

Dhaka, Bangladesh, 321, 363, 381

Dianella electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, 381

Dili, East Timor / Timor-Leste, 363, 382

Diocletian, 9

Dionysius Exiguus, 9, 11, 312

Dispur, Assam, India, 321

District of Columbia (see also Washington, D.C.), US, 139, 155, 157, 160, 161, 167, 168, 376

Distrito Federal, Brazil, 385-386

Dittman Research poll, Alaska, 2004, 191-192

Dixon, Frank, 147

Djibouti, 37, 344, 365, 390

Djibouti City, 390

Dobis, Chet, 186

Dobson, Thomas, 47

Dodoma, Tanzania, 365, 392

Doha, Qatar, 364, 384

Dome Fuji Station, Japanese Antarctic base, 393

Dominica, 37, 92, 215, 362, 374

Dominican Republic, 37, 92, 215, 228, 363, 374, 398

Dong-A Ilbo, newspaper, South Korea, 327

Donnelly, Phil, 158

Doolittle, Dudley, 129

D’Orazio, John, 290

Dorchester Assizes, UK, 30

Douala, Cameroon, 389

double daylight saving time / double summer time, 60, 66, 67-68, 69, 70, 71, 77, 78-82, 83-89, 94, 95, 97-98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 119, 153, 172, 174, 211, 213, 346, 359, 396

‘double XII system’, 16

Douglas, Isle of Man, 372

Dover, Delaware, 139, 146, 155, 376

Dowd, Charles, 31

Dowding, Peter, 289

Downard, Paul, 157

Doyle, Arthur Conan, 45

Drummond, Dr Mark, 281

dual time zone, Queensland, 276, 277-278, 278-279, 280

dual time zone, South Africa, 351

dual time zones, US, 279-280

Duarte, José Napoleón, 225

‘Duarte’s time’, 225

Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 385

Dublin, Ireland, 362, 370

Dublin Mean Time, 30

Duchess of Bourbon, 24

Dummit, Eldon, 157

Dumont d’Urville Station, French Antarctic base, 393

Duncan, Wendy, 293

Dunedin, New Zealand, 297

Dunedin North electoral district, New Zealand, 297

Dunedin South electoral district, New Zealand, 296

Dunkirk Evening Observer, New York, 149

Dunne, Peter, 309

Dunstan, Albert, 250

Durango, Mexico, 218

Durban, South Africa, 351

Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 324, 364, 385

Dutch commerce chambers, 99

Dzendzel, Raymond, 174, 175

Earl of Onslow, 63

Earle, John, 232

East Anglia, UK, 68

East Germany, 105-107

East Kootenay Regional District, British Columbia, 214

East Melville electoral district, Western Australia, 287

East Timor / Timor-Leste, 37, 315, 363, 382

East Turkestan, 399

Eastbourne electoral area, England, 80

Easter, 9, 10, 64, 65, 68, 127, 261

Easter Island, 37, 388

Eastern Daylight Time, US, 174, 175

Eastern Europe, 116-121

Eastern Standard Time, Australia, 270

Eastern Standard Time, Canada, 203, 214

Eastern Standard Time, US, 141, 164, 172, 173, 228

Eastport, Maine, 124

EC/EEC directives on daylight saving, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82-83, 86, 89, 96, 99, 101, 102, 107, 108, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 119, 366

EC Directive 2000/84/EC, 82-83, 119

Ecuador, 37, 332, 364, 388

Ede, James, 69, 70

Edinburgh, Scotland, 56, 72, 373

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Tristan da Cunha, 391

Edison Electric Institute, US, 178

Edmonton, Alberta, 194, 201, 207, 208, 211, 373

Education Board, New Zealand, 297

Education Department, New Zealand, 301

Education Department, Western Australia, 284

Edward VII, 45

Edwards, Ron, 260

Egypt, 3, 4, 8, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 36, 176, 236, 322, 344, 347-349, 365, 390, 399

Egypt energy study, 2010, 348

EgyptAir, 349

Egyptian calendars, 3-4, 9, 12, 13

El Alamein, Egypt, 236

el horario de verano, 100

El Niño, 218, 339

El Paso, Texas, 222

‘El Paso’ time, 222

El Salvador, 37, 215, 224, 225, 363, 374

Elamites of Iran, 15

Electoral Commission, Queensland, 272, 275

electoral districts, Queensland, 274-275

electoral districts, South Australia, 258-259

electoral districts, Western Australia, 286-288

electric clocks, 21

Electric Light Department, Sydney, New South Wales, 248

Electricity Advisory Committee, Western Australia, 283

electricity producers’ association, Germany, study, 1993, 107

Elektroprivreda Srbije, Serbia, 118

Elgin National Watch Company clock, Illinois, 129

Elizabeth electoral district, South Australia, 258

Elmira Star-Gazette, New York, 59

el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah, 349

Emergency Daylight Saving Time Energy Conservation Act of 1973, US, 177, 179, 180, 181

Emergency Powers (Defence) Acts 1939 and 1940, Hong Kong, 320

Emergency Powers Act 1920, UK, 65, 68

Empire Day, UK, 55

Empire of Japan, 326

Enabling Act 1914, Germany, 52, 105

Energy Authority of New South Wales, study, 1982, 259

Energy Conservation Centre, Japan, 328

Energy Consumption Agency, Austria, 110

energy crisis / oil shock, 1973-74, 77, 91, 94, 98, 99, 101, 102, 103, 105, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 117, 176-180, 212, 224, 227, 229, 313, 322, 323, 328, 332, 343, 361

energy crisis / oil shock, 1979, 91, 95, 102, 106, 111, 181, 226, 229, 320, 323, 328, 340, 343, 361

Energy Department, South Africa, 352

Energy Department, US, study, 2008, 189

Energy Policy Act of 2005, US, 189, 213

Energy Saving (Daylight) Bill, UK, 84

England (see also United Kingdom / Great Britain), 11, 20, 28, 30, 35, 52, 55, 58, 68, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 84, 93, 123, 232, 236, 241, 353

English Channel, 82, 93

Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), France, study, 96

Environment Department, Australia, 358

Episkopi Cantonment, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, 381

equation of time, 28

Equatorial Guinea, 37, 344, 365, 390

Eritrea, 37, 344, 365, 390

Esch, John, 130, 131

Eskom studies, South Africa, 351

Esperance-Dundas electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Esperanza, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 393

Espírito Santo, Brazil, 335, 336, 386, 399

Essen, Louis, 21

Essex County, Ontario, 211

Estación Científica Antártica Ruperto Elichiribehety, Uruguayan Antarctic base, 359, 393

Estermann, Yvette, 110

Estonia, 37, 53, 60, 61, 90, 91, 116, 118, 362, 369

Ethiopia, 37, 344, 365, 390

Etruscans, 6, 13

Eucla, Western Australia, 40

Eurobarometer survey, 1993, 80

‘Euro-clock’, 99

Europa Island, 391, 400

Europe, 16, 19, 38, 47, 52-62, 65, 72, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 82, 83, 90-121, 123, 129, 148, 154, 194, 199, 205, 229, 232, 295, 300, 301, 305, 315, 316, 317, 322, 324, 331, 334, 339, 346, 347, 349, 350, 354, 361, 362, 366, 369-373, 396

European Central Summer Time, 360

European Commission, 82, 83, 101, 103, 107, 110, 112, 119

European Community, 79, 80, 82, 96, 100, 101

European Council, 117

European Court of Human Rights, 118

European Economic Area Agreement, 115

European Economic Community (EEC), 74, 77, 78, 79, 94, 96

European Parliament, 108, 115, 118, 119

European Union study, 2014, 119

European Union, 10, 86, 89, 96, 102, 103, 108, 109, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 313, 317, 366

Eurotunnel, 79

Evang, Karl, 114

Evans, Hywel, 284

Everton electoral district, Queensland, 274

Executive Order No. 415, 1990, Philippines, 319

Expiring Laws Continuance Act 1923, UK, 64

Extension of Summer Time Bill, UK, 84

Eye electoral area, England, 68

Eyre electoral district, South Australia, 259

Eyre electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Eyre Highway, Australia, 40

Falkland Islands / Islas Malvinas, 37, 332, 334, 388

Falklands War, 334

Fargo, North Dakota, 156, 165, 378

Farm Bureau, Michigan, 174

Farmers’ Union, Australia, 284

farmers, passim

Faroe Islands, 36, 369

Faroux, Roger, 95

federal authority for roads, Germany, study, 1980, 107

Federal Communications Commission, US, 184

federal court, US, 173

Federal District, Brazil, 336

Federal District, Mexico, 220-221

Federal Environment Agency, Germany, 108

Federated Farmers, New Zealand, 309

Federated States of Micronesia, 37, 363, 380

Federation of Agriculture, Canada, 209

Federation of Labor, US, 130

Fenton, Charles, 239, 240

Fergus, Ontario, 204

Ferguson, Susan, 190

Ferny Grove electoral district, Queensland, 274

Ferrer, José Figueres, 226

Fertile Crescent, 2

Field Research Corporation, US, survey, 178

Fife Western electoral area, Scotland, 70

Fiji, 37, 311, 312, 363, 380

Filene, A. Lincoln, 124, 125, 126, 134

Finland, 37, 60, 90, 91, 113, 114, 116, 362, 369

First Council of Nicaea, 10

First Egyptian-Israeli Disengagement Agreement, 178

Fisher, Francis, 296

Fisher electoral district, South Australia, 258

Fitzgerald Inquiry, Queensland, 269

Fitzroy electoral district, Queensland, 275

Fiume, Croatia, 111

Fleming, Sandford, 34, 35, 40

Fletcher, Tony, 242

Flin Flon, Manitoba, 214

Flinders electoral district, South Australia, 259

Floreat electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Florey electoral district, South Australia, 258

Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 387-388

Florida, US, 32, 139, 149, 155, 156, 168, 171, 177-178, 191, 192, 227, 280, 376

Florida Power & Light Company, 178

Florida Today, Cocoa, Florida, 182

Floyd County, Indiana, 185

Foll, Harry, 249

Fong, W. K., 330

Fontana, Domenico, 17

Foodservice and Lodging Institute, US, 182

Ford, Gerald, 179

Ford, Henry, 32

Ford, Wendell, 172, 183

‘foreign time’, UK, 68

Forrestfield electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Forsa Institute, Germany, poll, 2004, 108

Fort Garry, 198

Fort Nelson, British Columbia, 214

Fort William, Ontario, 196, 206, 212

Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, 386

Fort-de-France, Martinique, 375

Foster, George, 199, 200, 201

Foundation Fighting Blindness, US, 182

Founding Fathers, US, 24

Fox, Vicente, 220

France, 2, 17, 21, 22, 23, 34, 35, 37, 38, 53, 56-57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 72, 76, 77, 90, 91, 92-98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 106, 110, 111, 119, 149, 229, 301, 313, 317, 345, 346, 347, 349, 350, 354, 362, 369, 400

Franco, Francisco, 100

Franco, Itamar, 336

Frankfort, Kentucky, 139, 148, 155, 157, 377

Franklin, Benjamin, 22, 23-27, 28, 42, 44, 295

Franklin, Tasmania, 233

Fraser Coast, Queensland, 278

Fraser, Peter, 308

Fredericton, New Brunswick, 194, 196, 212, 373, 397

free pendulum clock, 21

Free, Arthur, 137

Freetown, Sierra Leone, 353, 365, 391, 400

Fremantle electoral district, Western Australia, 287

French chambers of commerce, 59

French Guiana / Guiana, 37, 364, 388

French Polynesia, 37, 363, 380

French Revolutionary calendar, 12, 13, 22

Friesland farmers, Netherlands, 53

Frigg/Freya, Nordic goddess, 13

Frome electoral area, England, 66

Frost, Bill, 197

Fulmer, Hampton, 149

Fulton, James, 156

Funafuti, Tuvalu, 363, 381

Funchal, Madeira, 371

Gabon, 37, 344, 365, 390

Gaborone, Botswana, 364, 389

Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Station, 359, 393

Gaddafi, Muammar, 349

Galápagos Islands, 37, 388

Galicia, Spain, 100

Galilei, Galileo, 20

Gallacher, William, 70

Gallinger, Jacob, 123

Gallup poll, 80, 147, 149-151, 154, 157, 206-207, 235, 240, 250, 251, 253, 255, 256, 265, 266, 282, 284

Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index, US, 188

Galt, Ontario, 198, 203

Gambia, 37, 92, 344, 365, 366, 390

Garland, Robert, 57, 124, 125, 126, 132, 141, 149

Garner, W. W., 282

Garrett County, Maryland, 167

Gascoyne electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Gaviria, César, 342

Gaza, Palestine, 322, 384

General Post Office, Perth, 283

General Townshend, 55

Geodetic Conference, Rome, 1883, 34

Geographical Congress, Venice, 1881, 34

Geography Institute, Russia, 121

George H. Evans, ship, 237

George III, 21

George, David, 45

George Town, Cayman Island, 374

Georgetown, Ascension Island, 391

Georgetown, Guyana, 364, 388

Georgia, country, 37, 315, 325, 363, 366, 382, 399

Georgia, US, 32, 139, 146, 149, 152, 155, 168, 171, 189, 376-377, 398

Geraldton electoral district, Western Australia, 287

German Empire, 52, 62, 105

German Farmers’ Association, 108

German Federal Council, 52

German Time Act of 1978, 106

‘German time’, 54, 136

Germany, 11, 21, 33, 36, 49, 50, 52-53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58-59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 68, 69, 76, 90, 91, 93-94, 98-99, 100, 102, 105-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 119, 126, 136, 149, 150, 248, 282, 312, 316, 329, 347, 350, 359, 362, 369, 392, 394, 397

‘Get Involved’ campaign, Queensland, 279

‘Get the light right for Queensland’ campaign, 281

Ghana (formerly Gold Coast), 37, 92, 344, 354, 365, 390, 400

Gibraltar, 36, 55, 58, 61, 90, 91, 101, 346, 372

Gifford, Graham, 292

Gigoi, Tarun, 321

Gillen, Henry, 134

Gilles electoral district, South Australia, 258

Girrawheen electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Gladstone, Queensland, 270, 274

Gladstone electoral district, Queensland, 274

Glasgow, Scotland, 47

Glencoe, Ontario, 211

Glendalough electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Glenelg electoral district, South Australia, 258

Glenn, John, 132

Global Financial Crisis 2008, 293

Glorioso Islands, 391, 400

GMT (Greenwich Mean Time), passim

Godber, Joseph, 74

‘God’s time’, 31, 47, 56, 129, 130, 153, 161, 183, 197, 202, 224

Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, 386

Goiás, Brazil, 336, 338, 386

Golan Heights, 176, 178

Gold Coast, Queensland, 264, 267, 268, 269, 271, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281

Gold Coast Chamber of Commerce, 276

González Videla Antarctic Base, Chilean base, 359, 393

Goondiwindi, Queensland, 278

Gorton, Slade, 183

Gosnells electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Goss, Wayne, 269, 271, 275

Göteborg, Sweden, 33

‘government time’, 56, 220

governments of various countries, states, passim

Goyder electoral district, South Australia, 259

Graham, George, 20

Grammy Awards, 49

Grand Prix, Adelaide, South Australia, 242

Grandpa Jones (Louis Marshall Jones), 159-160

Granville, Edgar, 68

Graves, Bibb, 145

Gray, Charles, 296

Great Britain, see United Kingdom

Great Drought of 1968, Chile, 339

Great Wall Station, Chinese Antarctic base, 359, 393

Great Western Railway, UK, 29

Greater Romania, 116

Greece, 4, 5, 6, 11, 17, 18, 37, 60, 61, 90, 91, 112-113, 317, 362, 370

Greek calendars, 5-6

Green Bay, Wisconsin, 126

Greenland, 37, 215, 229-230, 374

Greenough electoral district, Western Australia, 287, 290

Greenpeace, 85

Greenslopes electoral district, Queensland, 275

Greenwich, UK, 34, 35, 36

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 38, 46, 55, 63, 73-74

Greenwich meridian, 34-35, 38

Greenwich time, passim

Gregorian calendar, 10-11, 12, 41, 346

Gregory, Augustus, 40

Gregory electoral district, Queensland, 275

Grenada, 37, 92, 215, 363, 374

Griffith, Arthur, 284, 285

Grynblat, Jerzy, 331

Guadeloupe, 37, 215, 228, 229, 374-375

Guam, 36, 380

Guanabara, Brazil, 335, 399

Guatemala, 37, 215, 224, 225, 363, 375

Guatemala City, 363, 375

Guayaquil, Ecuador, 388

Guelph, Ontario, 198, 203, 204

Guernsey, 372, 397

Guerrero, Mexico, 220

Guildhall, London, 47, 48

Guinea, 37, 344, 365, 366, 390

Guinea-Bissau, 37, 344, 365, 366, 390

Gulf Coast Seven, band, 144

Gunter, William, 145

Gus Arnheim and his Orchestra, band, 144

Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy, 375

Guterres, António, 104

Guyana, 37, 332, 364, 388

Gympie electoral district, Queensland, 274

Hadley, Massachusetts, 142

Hagåtña, Guam, 380

Hagerstown, Maryland, 160

Haifa, Israel, 322

Hain, Peter, 80

Haiti, 37, 215, 227-228, 363, 375

‘half time’, 143

Half Tree Hollow, Saint Helena, 391

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 61, 194, 198, 201, 202, 204, 208, 374

Halley Research Station, UK Antarctic base, 358, 393-394

Halloween, 181, 182, 189

Halstead, Albert, 59

Hames, Kim, 292

Hamilton, Bermuda, 373

Hamilton, John, 305

Hamilton, Ontario, 198, 203, 204

Hamilton Chamber of Commerce, New Zealand, 300

Hamilton Island, Queensland, 275

Hammer, William, 137, 138

Hangzhou, China, 319

Hanoi, Vietnam, 364, 385

Hansen, Cecile, 115

Hanson electoral district, South Australia, 258

Harare, Zimbabwe, 365, 392

Harding, Warren, 137, 138

Hargeisa, Somaliland, 391

Harman, John, 284

Harris, Rebecca, 84, 85, 87

Harris, Welton, 185

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 140, 141, 142, 146, 156, 378

Harrison, John, 20-21

Harrods, department store, UK, 45

Hartford, Connecticut, 132, 136, 139, 141, 142, 155, 376

Hartley electoral district, South Australia, 258

Harvard University, Massachusetts, 126

Harvey, Conway, 356

Hashimov, Arif, 326

Hastings, George, 132

Havana, Cuba, 362, 374

Hawaii, US, 36, 139, 145, 150, 155, 168, 171, 176, 177, 184, 188, 193, 214, 366, 377, 398

Hawke, Bob, 268

Hawker, Arden, 251

Hayes, C. M., 32, 126

Hayman Island, Queensland, 275

Hazardville, Connecticut, 143

Health Department, Queensland, 265

Health Insurance Agency, Hamburg, study, 2014, 109

Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Australian Antarctic base, 394

Heath, Edward, 77

Heath, Frederick, 245

Hebrew calendar, 5

Hechinger Company, US, 182

Helena, Montana, 139, 145, 155, 378

Helena electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Hellenthal and Associates, Alaska, survey, 2005, 192

Helsinki, Finland, 362, 369

Henlein, Peter, 20

Henley Beach electoral district, South Australia, 258

Henry VIII, 20

Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station, 359, 394

Herald Sun, Melbourne, Victoria, 268

Herman, Scott, 189

Hermetic Lunar Week calendar, 13

Hermosillo, Senora, Mexico, 216, 217, 375, 398

Herschel, John, 28

Hervey Bay, Queensland, 278

Hervey Bay electoral district, Queensland, 274

Hewitson, John, 196

Hidden London, 50

Hidding, Marinus, 243

High Court, Israel, 322

Hillarys electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Hillel II, 5

Hillman, Dr Mayer, 79

Hinchinbrook electoral district, Queensland, 275

Hindu calendar, 12

Hinemoa, ship, 237

Hipparchus, 10, 12, 16, 17

Hispaniola, 227, 228

Hitler, Adolf, 65

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 385

Hobart, Tasmania, 232, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 241, 249, 283, 358, 379

Hobart Chamber of Commerce, Tasmania, 235

Hochwarter, Dr, 111

Hockly, Frank, 302

Hodgman, Bill, 236, 237, 238

Hodgman, Michael, 238, 239

Hodgman, Peter, 241

Hodson, Arnold, 353

Hogarth, William, 11

Hokkaido, Japan, 329

Holladay, Ruth, 186

Hollande, François, 97

Holman, William, 247

Holmes, Mark, 309

Holmes, Sherlock, 45

Holt, Harold, 254

Home and Health Department, Scotland, 75

Home Department/Office, UK, 74, 75, 82

Honduras, 37, 215, 216, 224, 225, 363, 375, 397

Honecker, Erich, 106

Hong Kong, 36, 315, 320, 382, 399

Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce, 320

Hong Kong Daylight-Saving Regulations 1941, 320

Honiara, Solomon Islands, 363, 381

Honnorat, André, 56

Honolulu, Hawaii, 139, 155, 377

Hoosier Daylight Coalition, 186

Hoosiers, Indiana residents, 186, 188

Hope, Alexander, 208

Hope, John, 233

Hopi Indian Reservation, Arizona, 184

hora de verão, 102

hora Gaviria, 342

horario de verano, 219, 332

horário de verão, 334-335

Horloge Parlante, 62, 91, 92, 216, 316, 341, 396

Horus, Egyptian god, 9

hourglasses, 19

House Interstate Commerce Committee, US, 130

Housewives Association, New South Wales, 249

Housewives Association of Tasmania, 239

Houston, Texas, 379

Howard, John, 261

Howroyd, Charles, 232, 233

Hoxha, Enver, 117

Huangdi, the Yellow Emporer, 5

Hudson, George Vernon, 50, 295-296, 297, 311

Hudson, Robert, 67

Hudson Bay, Canada, 214

Hughes, Billy, 247, 248, 249

Hungary, 36, 53, 59, 61, 90, 91, 92, 111, 116, 117, 118, 362, 370

Hunter, Albert, 70

Huntingburg, Indiana, 173

Huntsville, Alabama, 167

Huon, Tasmania, 238

Hurriyet Daily News, Turkey, 317

Huygens, Christiaan, 20

Hydro-Electric Commission, Tasmania, 236, 238

‘I love a sunburn daily’, poem, Grant Woodhams, 290-291

Iceberg B-9, Antarctica, 359

Iceland, 36, 53, 60, 61, 90, 91, 102, 113, 114, 116, 229, 362, 366, 370

ICF International, 119

Ickes, Harold, 149

Idaho, US, 139, 151, 152, 155, 163, 167, 168, 171, 177, 191, 192, 280, 377

Idaho Chamber of Commerce, 151

IFES, Austria, poll, 1983, 111

Illinois, US, 30, 31, 123, 129, 132, 136, 137, 139, 143, 148, 151, 154, 155, 156, 165, 166, 167, 168, 172, 177, 178, 185, 187, 192, 377

Illinois Manufacturers’ Association, 132

‘Impact of extended daylight saving time on national energy consumption’ report, US Department of Energy, 2008, 189

Inala electoral district, Queensland, 274

India, 15, 36, 37, 39, 55, 315, 319, 320-321, 363, 382, 399

Indian calendar, 12

Indian government study, 2001-2004, 321

Indian Pacific train, Australia, 40

Indian Standard Time, 321

Indiana, US, 136, 139, 143, 146, 151, 153, 155, 156, 164, 165, 167, 168, 171, 172-174, 176, 177, 184, 185-189, 280, 377

Indiana Association of Cities and Towns, 173

Indiana School Board, 146

Indianapolis, Indiana, 139, 143, 146, 148, 155, 164, 172, 185, 188, 377

Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce, 148

Indianapolis Colts, 186

Indonesia, 37, 315, 363, 382, 399

Indooroopilly electoral district, Queensland, 274

Indo-Pakistani Wars, 1965 and 1971, 320

Indus Valley, 15

Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy, Spain, study, 2011, 101

Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn, Germany, 2015, 109

Insurance Corporation of British Columbia study, 2010, 213

Inter gravissimas, papal bull, 10

intercalary month, 3, 4, 5, 8

Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors, Melbourne, 1892, 40

Intercolonial Railway, Canada, 397, 398

Interior Department, US, 138

Internal Affairs Department, New Zealand, study, 2006, 309

International Air Transport Association, 349

International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, 182

International Astronomical Union, 16

International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 261

International Congress of Chambers of Commerce, Paris, 1914, 49

International Date Line, 35

International Fixed calendar, 12, 13

International Geographical Congress, Belgium, 1871, 34

International Meridian Conference / Prime Meridian Conference, Washington, D.C., 1884, 34-36, 397

International Monetary Fund, 219

Interstate Commerce Commission, US, see Transportation Department

Iowa, US, 130, 136, 139, 152, 153, 155, 166, 167, 168, 171, 377

Iowa Supreme Court, 32

Ipswich, Queensland, 279

Ipswich electoral district, Queensland, 274

Ipswich West electoral district, Queensland, 274

Iqaluit, Nunavut, 194, 196, 211, 374

Iran, 37, 39, 315, 324, 363, 383

Iranian Revolution, 181

Iran-Iraq War, 324

Iraq, 2, 37, 54, 315, 324, 363, 383

Ireland, 30, 34, 37, 38, 43, 46, 55, 58, 61, 85, 86, 90, 91, 102, 105, 362, 370

Irkutsk, Russia, 371

Iron Curtain, 99

Islamabad, Pakistan, 364, 384

Islamic calendar, 11, 324, 399, 400

‘island time’, Queensland, 276

Isle of Man, 372, 397

Israel, 5, 17, 37, 39, 176, 178, 315, 319, 321-323, 363, 383

Istanbul, Turkey, 385

Italy, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 33, 36, 53, 56, 61, 68, 90, 91, 93, 106, 110, 111-112, 119, 347, 349, 350, 359, 362, 370, 393, 396

Itochu, trading company, Japan, 331

Ittoqqortoormiit (formerly Scoresbysund), Greenland, 229, 374

Ivory Coast / Côte D’Ivoire, 37, 344, 365, 390

Izard, Charles, 296, 307

Jackson, Mississippi, 139, 145, 155, 377

Jacksonville, Florida, US, 376

Jacoby, Harold, 125, 126

Jakarta, Indonesia, 363, 382, 399

Jalisco, Mexico, 219, 220

Jamaica, 37, 215, 222, 227, 363, 375

James, Norman, 207

Jamestown, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, 391

Jandakot electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Jang Bogo Station, South Korean Antarctic base, 394

Janszky, Imre, 115

Janus, Roman god, 6

Japan, 36, 92, 99, 150, 154, 207, 315, 318, 319, 327-331, 363, 383

Japan Post, 330

Japan Productivity Centre, 330

Japan Standard Time, 318, 320, 399

Japanese Society of Sleep Research study, 2008, 330

Japanese Trade Union Confederation, 328

Jayapura City, Indonesia, 382, 399

Jefferson City, Missouri, 139, 155, 158, 378

Jenkins, Harry, 260

Jenkins, Roy, 73

Jersey, 373, 397

Jerusalem, Israel / Palestine, 34, 322, 363, 383, 384

Jignauth, Anerood, 354

Jinnah Antarctic Station, Pakistani base, 394

João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, 387

Johannesburg, South Africa, 351, 391

Johnson, Elliot, 248

Johnson, Keen, 148

Johnson, Lyndon, 169

Joint Coal Board, Australia, 253

Joint Committee of the Four Secondary Associations, UK, 71

Jones, Scott, 186

Jones, Walter, 208

Joondalup electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Jordan, 37, 315, 322, 323-324, 364, 383

Jordan University of Science and Technology, study, 2014, 323

Jordanian Teachers Association, 323

Journal de Paris, France, 23

Juan Carlos I Antarctic Base, Spanish base, 359, 394

Juan de Nova Island, 391, 400

‘Juárez time’, 222

Juba, South Sudan, 365, 391

Julian calendar, 8-10, 11, 12

Juneau, Alaska, 139, 146, 155, 376, 398

Juno, Roman goddess, 6

Juppé, Alain, 96

Kabul, Afghanistan, 363, 381

Kalamunda electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, 40

Kalgoorlie electoral district, Western Australia, 288, 290

Kaliningrad/Königsberg, Russia, 39, 52, 61, 90, 117, 120, 371

Kallangur electoral district, Queensland, 275

Kamchatka, Russia, 120

Kampala, Uganda, 365, 392

Kansai University, Japan, study, 331

Kansas, US, 129, 139, 155, 168, 171, 183, 192, 280, 377

Kansas City, Missouri, 31, 123, 155, 158, 378

Kantermann, Thomas, 108

Karachi, Pakistan, 384

Kariv, Yifat, 322

Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, study, 2006, 115-116

Karrinyup electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Kasenally, Swalay, 354

Katanning electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Katanning-Roe electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Kathmandu, Nepal, 364, 384

Katima Mulilo, Namibia, 353

Katter, Bob, 279

Kavel electoral district, South Australia, 259

Kay, W. F., 202

Kazakhstan, 37, 315, 324, 325, 364, 366, 383, 399

Kedron electoral district, Queensland, 275

‘Keep summertime British’, submission, UK, 1989, 80

Keewatin, Ontario, 197

Kellogg, Ryan, 244

Kelowna, British Columbia, 198

Kennedy electoral district, Australia, 279

Kennel Club, UK, 85

Kenora, Ontario, 197

Kent, UK, 42, 47, 49, 50

Kent County, Ontario, 211

Kentucky, US, 32, 132, 136, 139, 148, 155, 157-158, 167, 168, 171, 172, 183, 185, 188, 191, 280, 377, 398

Kenwick electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Kenya, 37, 344, 355-356, 365, 366, 390

Keppel electoral district, Queensland, 274

Kerguelen Islands, 390

Kerrville Mountain Sun, Ingleside, Texas, 229

Kew Gardens, London, 56

Khartoum, Sudan, 354, 365, 391

Khovd/Hovd, Mongolia, 383

Ki Hwa, Roh, 326

Kiev/Kyiv, Ukraine, 362, 372

Kigali, Rwanda, 365, 391

Killarney, Manitoba, 211

Kimberley electoral district, Western Australia, 288

King, Edward, 129

King Edward Point, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, 388-389

King Sejong Station, South Korean Antarctic base, 360, 394

King Taufa’ahau Tupou IV, 311

Kingsley electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Kingston, Canada, 203, 204

Kingston, Jamaica, 363, 375

Kingston, Norfolk Island, 380

Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 363, 376

Kinross and West Perthshire electoral area, Scotland, 68

Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 365, 389

Kirchner, Néstor, 333

Kiribati, 36, 311, 312, 363, 380

Kiritimati / Christmas Island, 312

Kirkwood, James, 355-356

Kitchener, Ontario, 202

Klinge, Jenny, 115

Knight, Allan, 238

Kohnen-Station, German Antarctic base, 394

Koizumi, Junichiro, 330

Kojonup, Western Australia, 292

Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India, 382, 399

Kootenay, British Columbia, 212

Kopp, Gudrun, 108

Korea (see also North Korea and South Korea), 36, 326

Kosovo, 370

Kotchen, Matthew, 188

Kotte, Sri Lanka, 364

Kralendijk, Bonaire, 385

Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 371

Krutikov, Vladimir, 120

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 318, 364, 383

Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 383, 399

Kunlun Station, Chinese Antarctic base, 394

Kuomintang, China, 399

Kurds, 324

Kurwongbah electoral district, Queensland, 275

Kut Al Amara, Iraq, 54

Kuwait, 37, 315, 364, 383

Kuwait City, 364, 383

Kwinana electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Kyoto Protocol, 328

Kyrgyzstan, 37, 315, 324, 325, 364, 366, 383

Kyzylorda, Kazakhstan, 325, 383

La Niña, 343

Laayoune, Western Sahara, 392, 400

Labor Congress, New South Wales, 246

Labor Council of New South Wales, 246

Ladner, British Columbia, 200

Lady Saltoun of Abernethy, 83

Lagos, Nigeria, 391

Lahore, Pakistan, 321

Lake County, Indiana, 186

Lake District electoral district, Kenya, 356

Lake of the Woods, Ontario, 197

Lake Superior, US/Canada, 196

Lambert, William, 31

Lancashire cotton mills, UK, 57

Lane, Don, 266

Lang, New South Wales, 248

Lange, Ambroise, 23, 26

Lansing, Michigan, 139, 152, 155, 377

Laos, 37, 315, 364, 383

Lapland War, 113

Lapwai School District, Idaho, 152

Laredo, Texas, 222

Las Palmas, Canary Islands, 372

Las Vegas, Nevada, 184, 191, 378

Lascaux caves, France, 2

Latvia, 37, 53, 60, 61, 90, 91, 116, 118, 362, 370

Launceston, Tasmania, 233, 234, 235, 239, 240

Launceston Fifty Thousand League, 235

law no. 14 of 1995, Egypt, 348

law no. 141 of 1988, Egypt, 348

Law-Racoviță Station, Romanian Antarctic base, 394

Laws of the Straits Settlements, 318

Le Fevre, Mac, 237

Le Matin, France, 229

Lea, W. D., 212

League of Arizona Cities, 172

League of Nations, 65, 90

League of Nations study, 338

Lebanon, 36, 315, 317, 364, 383

Lee, Charles, 246

Lee, Walter, 233

Leeds, UK, 47

Leek in Staffordshire electoral area, England, 46

Legislative Building, Fredericton, New Brunswick, 212

Leisure Development Centre, Japan, 328

Lend-Lease agreement, 149

Lennon, Paul, 243, 244

Lesotho, 36, 344, 353, 365, 390

Lesser Antilles, 228

Lévis, Quebec, 204

Levy, Anne, 257

Lewis, Charles, 296

Lewis, E. N., 196

Lewis, Neil, 233

Lewisham East electoral area, England, 67

Lhasa, Tibet, 382

l’heure d’été, 57

Liberia, 36, 37, 344, 365, 366, 390

Libreville, Gabon, 365, 390

Libya, 37, 92, 344, 349-350, 365, 366, 390

Libya Herald, Tripoli, 349-350

Libyan Constitution, 349

Liechtenstein, 36, 90, 91, 110, 362, 370

Light electoral district, South Australia, 259

Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill, UK, 84

Lighter Evenings Bill, UK, 84

‘Lighter Later’ campaign, UK, 84-85, 87

Lilian calendar, 10

Lilius, Aloysius, 10

Lilongwe, Malawi, 365, 390

Lima, Peru, 343, 364, 388

Lincoln Sunday Journal and Star, Nebraska, 147

Lincoln, Nebraska, 139, 155, 378

Lincolnshire Farmers’ Union, UK, 49

Lindeman Island, Queensland, 275

Line Islands, 311

Lisbon, Portugal, 34, 57, 102, 103, 104, 362, 370

Lisbon Astronomical Observatory, 104

Literary Digest, US, 129

Lithuania, 13, 37, 90, 91, 118, 362, 370

Little America, Antarctic base, 359

Little Rock, Arkansas, 139, 155, 376

Liverpool, UK, 28, 47

Liverpool Cotton Exchange, 47

Liverpool Stock Exchange, 123

Ljubljana, Slovenia, 362, 372, 397

Lloydminster, Alberta and Saskatchewan, 210, 213

Lobendahn, Vincent, 312

local mean time, passim

Lockyer electoral district, Queensland, 274

Logan, Queensland, 279

Logan electoral district, Queensland, 274

Lomé, Togo, 365, 392

London, Ontario, 198, 200

London, UK, 23, 28, 29, 36, 38, 42, 43, 47, 49, 50, 55, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 81, 362, 372

London County Council, UK, 48, 56

London Stock Exchange, 45, 47, 123

Londonberry, Ireland, 34

Longyearbyen, Svalbard, 370

López Obrador, Andrés Manuel, 220-221

l’ora legale, 111

Lord Archer of Weston-super-Mare (Jeffrey Archer), 83

Lord Balfour of Burleigh, 55

Lord Bledisloe, 63

Lord Howe Island, New South Wales, 36, 257, 380, 398

Lord Howie of Troon, 83-84

Lord Stonham, 74

Lord Tanlaw, ‘Time Lord’, 84

Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 19

Los Alamos, New Mexico, 167

Los Angeles, California, 136, 144, 162, 180, 376

Los Angeles Times, California, 178, 221, 322

Louisiana, US, 139, 149, 155, 157, 161, 168, 171, 377

Louisville, Kentucky, 32, 136, 139, 148, 155, 157-158, 185, 188, 377, 398

Low Alps, France, 56

Lowe, Doug, 240

Lowrie, Kenneth, 239

Luanda, Angola, 364, 389

Lucas, Eric, 352

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany, study, 2007, 108

lunar calendar, 3, 4

lunisolar calendar, 5

Lusaka, Zambia, 365, 392

Lusitania, ship, 126

Luxembourg, 36, 53, 54, 61, 90, 91, 96, 100, 105, 106, 362, 370

Luxembourg City, 362, 370

Lyons, Joseph, 249

Lyons, Kevin, 240

Lysnar, Douglas, 303

Lytton electoral district, Queensland, 275

M-Co, New Zealand, 309

Maastricht Treaty, 103

Macapá, Amapá, Brazil, 386

Macau/Macao, 37, 315, 320, 382

Macau Official Gazette, 320

Macdonald, Donald, 212

MacDonald, Earle, 208

MacDonald, Ramsay, 45

Macedonia, 18, 36, 90, 91, 118, 362, 370

Maceiό, Alagoas, Brazil, 386

Machu Picchu Base, Peruvian Antarctic base, 360, 394

Mackay electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mackellar, Dorothea, 290

MacKenzie, Thomas, 298

MacNeil, Angus, 86, 87

Macquarie Island, Antarctica, 358, 394

MacTiernan, Alannah, 294

Madagascar, 37, 344, 354, 365, 390

Madeira, 37, 371

Madison, Wisconsin, 140, 156, 379

Madison Square Park, New York, 127

Madrid, Spain, 100, 362, 372

Madura, Western Australia, 40

Magellan, Ferdinand, 19

Magsaysay, Ramon, 318

Mahlab, Ibrahim, 348

Maia, Cesar, 336

Maia, Roman goddess, 6

Maine, US, 30, 32, 124, 132, 134, 136, 139, 143, 155, 156, 167, 168, 377, 398

Maitland, New South Wales, 252

Maitri, Indian Antarctic base, 394

Majuro, Marshall Islands, 363, 380

Makassar/Macassar/Mangkasara, Indonesia, 382, 399

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea, 365, 390

Malawi, 36, 344, 365, 390

Malaya, 318

Malaysia, 36, 315, 317, 318, 364, 383, 399

Maldives, 37, 315, 364, 383

Maldonado Base, Ecuadorian Antarctic base, 394

Malé, Maldives, 364, 383

Mali, 37, 344, 364, 366, 390

Malielegaoi, Tuilaepa, 313

Mallee electoral district, South Australia, 259

Malta, 36, 56, 61, 90, 91, 112, 362, 370

Mamoudzou, Mayotte, 390

Managua, Nicaragua, 226, 363, 375

Manama, Bahrain, 363, 381

Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 337, 338, 386

Manchester, New Hampshire, 136, 140, 147, 378

Manchester, UK, 28, 47

Mandurah electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Manila, Philippines, 364, 384, 399

Manitoba, Canada, 194, 198, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 373

Manley, Michael, 227

Manly, New South Wales, 249

Mansfield electoral district, Queensland, 274

Manzini, Swaziland, 392

Maputo, Mozambique, 365, 391

Marambio Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 394

Marangaroo electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Maranhão, Brazil, 335, 336, 386

Marcos, Ferdinand, 318

Mariehamn, Åland Islands, 369

Marigot, Saint Martin, 376

Maritime provinces, Canada, 201, 203, 210

Market Opinion Research poll, Michigan, 1972, 176

Markey, Edward, 183

Marks, Marcus M., 124, 125, 126, 127, 131, 132

Marmion electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Maroochydore electoral district, Queensland, 274

Marquess of Crewe, 63

Marrison, Warren, 21

Mars, Roman god, 6

Marshall Islands, 36, 363, 380

Martin, Chris, 49

Martinique, 37, 215, 228, 229, 375

Maryborough electoral district, Queensland, 274

Maryland, US, 30, 32, 123, 132, 136, 139, 155, 160, 161, 167, 168, 377

Marylebone Grammar School, London, 42

Maseru, Lesotho, 365, 390

Mason and Dixon line, US, 144

Massachusetts, US, 123, 124, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 142, 143, 151, 155, 156, 167, 168, 183, 192, 377

Massachusetts State Grange, 132, 142

Massachusetts State Grange v Benton, 142

Massey, William, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303

Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 217

Mataura electoral district, New Zealand, 301

Mata-Utu, Wallis and Futuna Islands, 381

Mather, Robert, 239

Matienzo Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 394

Mato Grosso, Brazil, 336, 338, 386

Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 336, 386

Mauritania, 37, 344, 365, 367, 390

Mauritius, 36, 344, 354-355, 365, 390

Mawson electoral district, South Australia, 258

Mawson Station, Australian Antarctic base, 358, 394

May, Margaret, 276

Mayan calendars, 4-5, 13

Mayans, 4

Maylands electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Mayotte, 37, 390

Mazatlán, Sinaloa, Mexico, 217

Mbabane, Swaziland, 365, 391

McCombs, James, 302, 307

McDonald, Ian, 275

McDonald, John, 253

McKay, Douglas, 163

McKeen, Robert, 307, 308

McKeesport, Pennsylvania, 136

McKell, William, 251

McKenna, Nick, 254

McLaughlin, Alden, 228

McLoughlin, Harry, 237

McMullan, Bob, 275

McMurdo Station, US Antarctic base, 359, 360, 394

McPhee, John, 235

McPherson electoral district, Australia, 276

McQuillan, Jim, 311

mean solar time, passim

Meander, Tasmania, 233, 239

Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 11

mechanical clocks, 20

Medina, Saudi Arabia, 11

Mediterranean Sea, 346

Medvedev, Dmitry, 120, 121

Medway Chamber of Commerce, UK, 65

Melbourne, Victoria, 40, 44, 244, 247, 249, 250, 251, 283, 379

Melchior Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 394

Melfort, Saskatchewan, 197

Melville electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Memphis, Tennessee, 140, 148, 156, 159, 379

Mendel Polar Station, Czech Republic Antarctic base, 360, 394

Meng, Harry, 143

Menzies, Robert, 250

Mercedinus (leap month), 7

Merchants and Manufacturers Association, US, 138

Merchants’ Association, US, 129

Merchants’ Association of New York, 149

Mercury, Roman god, 6

Mercury Bay, New Zealand, 296

Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, 217

Merredin electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Merredin-Yilgam electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Merrimac electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mesopotamia, 2, 4, 17

Meton, 4, 5

Metonic cycle, 4, 5

Metropolitan Tower, New York, 128

Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, 217

Mexican Congress, 221, 222

Mexican government study, 1992, 218

Mexican-American War, 1846-1848, 126

Mexico, 37, 126, 215, 216-222, 227, 361, 363, 375, 396, 398

México, state, 220, 221

Mexico City, 216, 217-218, 220-221, 363, 375, 398

Mexico stock exchange, 221

Michigan, US, 30, 32, 33, 128, 129, 136, 139, 143, 151, 152, 155, 156, 160, 161, 167, 168, 171, 172, 174-176, 177, 192, 210, 280, 377, 398

Michigan Central Railroad, 30

Michigan Chamber of Commerce, 174

Michigan State University, study, 2009, 190

Michoacán, Mexico, 220

Middle Ages, 19

Middle East, 15, 315

Middlesex, Ontario, 211

Middletown Times Herald, New York, 334

Midland electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Midlands, UK, 67

‘midsummer madness’, 256

midsummer time, 396

Midway Atoll/Island, 381

Mildura, Victoria, 248

Millane, Rick, 311

Millennium Island, Kiribati, 312

Millennium Park, 312

Miller, Brian, 241

Milton, Earl, 210

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 136, 140, 141, 143, 379

Minas Gerais, Brazil, 335, 336, 387, 399

Mindarie electoral district, Western Australia, 286

ministry of international trade and industry, Japan, 328

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 139, 146, 148, 166, 377

Minnesota, US, 32, 136, 139, 146, 148, 153, 155, 156, 165, 166, 167, 168, 377

Minsk, Belarus, 362, 369

Mirani electoral district, Queensland, 275

Mirny Station, Russian Antarctic base, 394

Missisquoi County, Quebec, 202

Mississippi, US, 139, 145, 149, 155, 168, 171, 192, 377

Mississippi River, US, 144

Missouri, US, 123, 136, 139, 153, 155, 156, 158, 167, 168, 171, 191, 192, 378

Mitcham electoral district, South Australia, 258

Mitchel, John P., 125

Mitchell electoral district, South Australia, 258

Mitchell electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Model T Ford, 33

Mogadishu, Somalia, 365, 391

Moggill electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mohammed, 11

Moldova, 37, 90, 91, 116-117, 118, 119, 120, 362, 370

Molène, France, 98

Momani, Mohammad, 323

Monaco, 37, 57, 61, 90, 92, 102, 105, 362, 370

Moncton, New Brunswick, 194, 196, 201, 204, 373

Mongolia, 36, 38, 315, 326, 364, 383, 399

Mongolia study, 1998, 326

Monongahela, Pennsylvania, 141

Monrovia, Liberia, 365, 390

Montague, Prince Edward Island, 209

Montana, US, 139, 145, 155, 167, 168, 171, 378

Montenegro, 36, 90, 92, 118, 362, 370, 397

Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, 217

Montevideo, Uruguay, 341, 342, 364, 389, 399

Montgomery, Alabama, 139, 145, 155, 376, 397

Montpelier, Vermont, 140, 148, 156, 379

Montreal, Quebec, 194, 196, 199, 200, 202, 204, 208, 374, 398

Montserrat, 37, 215, 375

Mooloolah electoral district, Queensland, 274

Moore, Norman, 292-293

Moore, Richard, 305

Moore electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Moorhead, Carlos, 183

Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, 196, 197

Morales, Evo, 342

Moran, Robert, 131

Moray and Nairn electoral area, Scotland, 70

More Daylight Club, Detroit, Michigan, 32

Moreton Bay Regional Council, Queensland, 279

Morgan Gallup poll, see Gallup poll

Morgan Stanley, 330

Morinaga Milk, 331

Morioka, Koji, 331

Morley electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Morley-Swan electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Moroccan Sahara, 347

Morocco, 37, 62, 92, 344, 345, 346-347, 352, 365, 390, 400

Morocco energy study, 2008, 346

Moroni, Comoros, 365, 389

Morphett electoral district, South Australia, 258

Morrison, Herbert, 66, 67, 68

Morrow, Floyd, 157

Morton, Frank, 298

Morton, Helen, 292

Moscow, Russia, 60, 61, 107, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 362, 366, 371, 397

Moscow Time, 39, 105, 121

Mossman, Queensland, 265

Mossman Chamber of Commerce, 265

Mount Coot-tha electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mount Gravatt electoral district, Queensland, 275

Mount Hawthorn electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Mount Isa, Queensland, 264, 275

Mount Isa electoral district, 275

Mount Lawley electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Mount Marshall electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Mount Ommaney electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mount San Jacinto, California, 161

Mountain Daylight Time, Canada, 213

Mountain Standard Time, Canada, 208, 209, 210, 213, 214

Mountain Standard Time, US, 163, 169

Mozambique, 36, 344, 365, 391

Mt Gambier electoral district, South Australia, 259

Mubarak, Hosni, 348

Mudie, Virginia, 358

Mulgrave electoral district, Queensland, 271, 275

Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India, 382, 399

Mundaring electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Mundingburra electoral district, Queensland, 274

Mundrabilla, Western Australia, 40

Murchison-Eyre electoral district, Western Australia, 288

Murdock, E. H., 123

Murdoch electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Murphy, Lionel, 260

Murphy, Mrs William, 157

Murray, John, 246

Murray Bridge, South Australia, 251

Murray electoral district, South Australia, 259

Murray electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Murray-Wellington electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Murrumba electoral district, Queensland, 275

Muscat, Oman, 364, 384

‘Musharraf time’, Pakistan, 321

Muslims (see also Ramadan), 317, 354

Mussolini, Benito, 111

‘My Country’, poem, Dorothea Mackellar, 290

Myanmar/Burma, 36, 37, 39, 315, 364, 383, 399

Myers, B. E., 146

Myrick, Herbert, 134

Naciri, Khalid 346

Nagorno-Karabakh, 384

Nairobi, Kenya, 355, 356, 365, 390

Nairobi South electoral district, Kenya, 355

Namibia, 36, 344, 352-353, 365, 391

Nanjing, China, 319

Napier electoral district, South Australia, 258

Napoleon, 12, 21

Narrogin electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Nashville, Tennessee, 140, 148, 156, 158-160, 379

Nashville Banner, Tennessee, 158

Nassau, Bahamas, 362, 373

Nasser, Gamal, 347

Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 387

Natal, South Africa, 36

Natashquan River, Quebec, 214

National Action Committee on Summer Time, South Africa, 351

National Association Against Summer Time, or Landsforeningen mod Sommertid, Denmark, 115

National Association of Convenience Stores, US, 182

National Bureau of Standards, US, 181

National Coal Board, UK, 69

National Commission for Energy Conservation, Mexico, 219

National Commission for the Rationalization of Spanish Schedules, or Comisión Nacional para la Racionalización de los Horarios Españoles, 102

National Committee on Daylight Saving, US, 125

National Confectioners Association, US, 182

National Conference on the Global Environment and Summer Time, Japan, 1998, 328-329

National Council of Organized Workers, Mexico, 220

National Daylight Association of Cincinnati, US, 123

National Daylight Saving Association, US, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130-131, 132

National Daylight Saving Convention, US, 1917, 125

National Diet, Japan, 327, 328

National Efficiency Board, New Zealand, 301

National Electric Power Company, Jordan, 323

National Emergency Memorandum Order No. 17, 1990, Philippines, 319

National Farmers’ Union of England and Wales, 66, 67, 69, 70-71, 72, 75

National Farmers’ Union of Scotland, 70, 71, 73, 85

National Federation of Building Trades Employers, UK, study, 1969, 74

National Football League, US, 192

National Golf Foundation, US, 182

National Grange, US, 130, 136, 142

National Institute of Standards and Technology, US, 19, 21

National Institutes of Health, US, study, 2001, 190

National Lawn Tennis Association, US, 125

National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, US, 125

National Measurement (Standard Time) Amendment Bill, Australia, 260, 275

National Measurement Act 1960, Australia, 260, 261

National Opinion Poll survey, UK, 1994, 81

National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, US, 178

National Parent Teacher Association, US, 183

National Physical Laboratory, UK, 21

National Program for the Rational and Efficient Use of Energy, Argentina, 333

‘National response to South Africa’s electricity shortage’, 352

National Security (Daylight Saving) Regulation, Australia, 251

National Security Act 1939, Australia, 235

National Security Regulations, Australia, 248, 250

National Union of Agricultural Workers, UK, 71

National Union of Mineworkers, UK, 69

National Union of Teachers, UK, 71

National War Garden Commission, US, 127, 129

NATO, 101

Nature, England, 46, 47

Nauru, 37, 363, 380

Navajo Nation, US, 139, 140, 155, 156, 184, 378, 398

Naypyidaw, Myanmar, 364, 383, 399

N’Djamena, Chad, 365, 389

Neath electoral area, Wales, 80

Nebraska, US, 139, 153, 155, 168, 171, 177, 280, 378

Nedlands electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Neilson, Bill, 239, 240

Nelson, New Zealand, 309

Nelson monument, Scotland, 56

Nelson-Creston, British Columbia, 212

Nepal, 37, 39, 315, 364, 384

Nerang electoral district, Queensland, 274

Netherlands, 36, 37, 53-54, 61, 62, 64, 65, 72, 76, 77, 90, 92, 93, 98-100, 105, 106, 119, 362, 370, 397

Neto, Arthur, 338

Neumayer-Station III, German Antarctic base, 394

Neuquén, Argentina, 332

Nevada, US, 139, 155, 162, 163, 167, 168, 171, 191, 280, 378

New Britain, Connecticut, 136

New Brunswick, Canada, 194, 196, 198, 201, 202, 204, 207, 208, 212, 373, 397

New Caledonia, 37, 311, 313, 380

New Delhi, India, 363, 382

New England, US states, 30, 132, 133, 147, 150, 151, 167

New Hampshire, US, 123, 134, 136, 139, 140, 143, 146, 155, 156, 167, 168, 378

New Jersey, US, 32, 130, 132, 136, 137, 140, 143, 151, 152, 155, 156, 167, 168, 378

New Mexico, US, 126, 140, 146, 155, 156, 157, 167, 168, 171, 191, 192, 218, 378, 398

New Orleans, Louisiana, US, 377

New Osnaburgh, Ontario, 214

New South Wales, Australia, 36, 40, 44, 49, 232, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251-252, 253, 254, 255, 256-257, 259, 260, 261-262, 264, 266, 267, 268, 276, 280, 379, 398

New South Wales Cricket Association, 249

New South Wales Public Service Association, 249

New South Wales road toll study, 268

New York, US, 30, 32, 123, 124, 125, 127, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 140, 143, 148, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 167, 168, 184, 185, 378

New York Central Railroad, 30

New York Police Department Band, 127

New York Stock Exchange, 45, 123, 221

New Zealand, 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 49, 50, 237, 265, 295-311, 312, 313, 359, 363, 380, 395, 399

New Zealand Constitution, 303

New Zealand Daylight Time Order 1990, 309

New Zealand Daylight Time Order 2007, 310

New Zealand Free Lance, 304

New Zealand Local Time Bill, 1909, 297, 307

New Zealand Mean Time Bill, 1911, 298, 307

New Zealand Mean Time Bill, 1912, 298, 307

New Zealand Time Order 1975, 309

New Zealand Tourism Online, 309

Newark, New Jersey, 140, 143, 378

Newcastle, New South Wales, 251

Newdegate, Tasmania, 241

Newfoundland, 37, 49, 61, 62, 102, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205

Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 39, 194, 210, 211, 212, 213, 229, 280, 374, 397

Newfoundland Standard Time, 397

Newland electoral district, South Australia, 258

Newman, Campbell, 280

Newpaper Printing Corporation building, Nashville, Tennessee, 159

News.Az, Azerbaijan, 326

Ngerulmud, Palau/Belau, 363, 380

Niagara Falls, Ontario, 203, 204

Niamey, Niger, 365, 391

Nicaea, 10

Nicaragua, 37, 215, 224, 225-226, 363, 375

Nicaraguan Revolution, 226

Nicene Creed, 10

Nicklin electoral district, Queensland, 274, 278

Nicosia, Cyprus, 363, 382

Nielsen Company, Australia, 277-278, 280

Niger, 37, 344, 365, 367, 391

Nigeria, 37, 344, 365, 391

Nile River, Egypt, 3

Nimeiry, Gaafar, 354

Nitti, Francesco, 111

Niue, 36, 380

Nixon, Richard, 174, 176, 177, 178

Nolasco, Margarita, 224

Nollamara electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Noosa, Queensland, 279

Noosa electoral district, Queensland, 275

Nordic Council of Ministers, 114

Norfolk, Virginia, 132, 165, 166

Norfolk Island, Australia, 37, 255, 380

Norman, Henry, 55

Norse calendar, 13

North Africa, 15, 324

North America, 34, 61, 62, 122-230, 232, 295, 305, 361, 362-363, 366, 373-379

North American Free Trade Agreement, 220

North Carolina, US, 137, 140, 145, 149, 155, 168, 378

North Dakota, US, 140, 150, 155, 165, 167, 168, 171, 280, 378

North Korea, 315, 326, 364, 384, 399

North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, 384

North Peace River, British Columbia, 212

North Sea, 57, 114

North West Central electoral district, Western Australia, 288

Northern Cyprus, 384

Northern Ireland, 37, 69, 74, 81, 83, 84, 85, 373

Northern Mariana Islands, 36, 380

Northern Rivers electoral district, Western Australia, 288

Northern Tasmanian Lawn Tennis Association, 236

Northern Territory, Australia, 39, 255, 261, 262, 379

Northwest Territories, Canada, 194, 374

Norway, 36, 53, 54, 60, 61, 90, 91, 92, 113, 114, 115, 360, 362, 370

Norwood electoral district, South Australia, 258

Nottingham, UK, 56

Nouakchott, Mauritania, 365, 390

Nouméa, New Caledonia, 380

Nova Scotia, Canada, 194, 198, 201, 202, 204, 207, 208, 212, 374, 398

Novolazarevskaya Station, Russian Antarctic base, 395

Nudgee electoral district, Queensland, 275

Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 222

Nuevo León, Mexico, 217, 218, 220, 221

Nuku’alofa, Tonga, 363, 381

Nunavut, Canada, 194, 214, 280, 374

Nuuk, Greenland, 229, 374

Oakland, Maryland, 167

Oamaru Mail, New Zealand, 296

Oaxaca, Mexico, 220

obelisks, 15, 17

Ocean Reef electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Oceania, 61, 231-313, 363, 366, 379-381

Odio, Rodrigo Carazo, 226

OECD, 331

Office of War Information, US, 169

Office of Works, London, 55-56

Official Time Act, 1967, Manitoba, 212

Ogilvie, Albert, 235

Ohara, Takashi, 328

Ohio, US, 30, 32, 33, 123, 132, 136, 140, 151, 152-153, 156, 167, 168, 171, 175, 177, 184, 185, 378, 398

Ohio Clock, Washington, D.C.,128

Ohio University, 184

Oklahoma, US, 140, 153, 156, 168, 171, 192, 378

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, US, 140, 156, 378

O’Laughlin, John, 124

Olympia, Washington, US, 140, 146, 156, 163, 379

Olympiad, 6

Olympic Games, South Korea, 1988, 326

Olympic Games, Sydney, 2000, 243-244

Omaha, Nebraska, 378

Oman, 37, 315, 364, 384

Omdurman, Sudan, 391

Omsk, Russia, 371

‘On seasonal time’, George Hudson paper, New Zealand, 295

‘On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30°’, George Hudson paper, New Zealand, 295

Ontario, Canada, 194, 196, 197, 198, 200, 202, 203, 204-205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213, 214, 280, 373, 374

Ontario Municipal Association, 208

OPEC, 94, 99

Opinea, Spain, survey, 2014, 102

Opinion Way, France, poll, 2014, 2015, 97

Optimist Club, US, 158

Oral, Kazakhstan, 325, 383

Orange River Colony, 36

Oranjestad, Aruba, 385

Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius, 376

Orcadas Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 395

Orchard, John, 239

Oregon, US, 136, 140, 153, 156, 157, 163, 167, 168, 192, 280, 378

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, OAPEC, 176, 178

Oricon Style, Japan, survey, 2015, 331

Orillia, Ontario, 197, 203

Orthodox Jews, 85, 183

Osborn, Sidney, 152

Oshawa, Ontario, 203

Osler, Abraham Follett, 28

Oslo, Norway, 60, 115, 362, 370

Oslo lunch, 235

Ottawa, Ontario, 61, 194, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207, 208, 362, 373

Ottawa Board of Control, 208

Ottoman Empire, 54, 62, 316, 317

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 364, 389

‘Outline of the Report on the National Conference on the Global Environment and Summer Time’, Japan, 1998, 329

Outtrim, Alfred, 245, 246

Overstag, Belgium/Holland, 54

Overton, John, 161

Oxford University Press, UK, 48

Pacheco Matte, Mázimo, 339-340

Pacific Daylight Time, US, 163

Pacific Gas and Electric Company, California, 162

Pacific islands, 39, 311-313

Pacific Islands Monthly, 313

Pacific Standard Time, US, 359

Pacific War, 68

Pact of Steel, 111

Pago Pago, American Samoa, 363, 379

Pakistan, 36, 37, 315, 319, 321, 364, 384, 399

Palaszczuk, Annastacia, 281

Palau/Belau, 36, 363, 380

Palestine, 36, 315, 322, 323, 324, 384

Palestinian National Authority, 322

Palikir, Federated States of Micronesia, 363, 380

Pallesen, Ståle, 115

Palm Springs, California, 161

Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, 388

Palmer Station, US Antarctic base, 359, 360, 395

Panama, 36, 215, 224, 363, 375

Panama City, 363, 375

Papeete, French Polynesia, 363, 380

Papua New Guinea, 36, 363, 380

Pará, Brazil, 335, 387

Paraguay, 37, 332, 334, 340, 364, 388

Paraíba, Brazil, 336, 387

Paramaribo, Suriname, 364, 389

Paraná, Brazil, 336, 387

Parentline Plus, UK, 85

Paris, France, 23, 24, 25-26, 34, 35, 49, 64, 93, 94, 345, 350, 362, 369, 399, 400

Paris Mean Time, 38

Park Chung-hee, 326

parliaments of various countries, states, passim

Parliament Act 1911, UK, 55

Parry, Bill, 308

‘Partition of India’, 399

Passover, 322

Past and Present Energy Societies: How Energy Connects Politics, Technologies and Cultures, Nina Möllers and Karin Zachmann (eds), 107

Peace River Regional District, British Columbia, 214

Peace Treaty with Japan, 327

Peake electoral district, South Australia, 259

Pearce, Robert, 46, 48

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 150

Pearsall, Geoff, 241, 242

Pecka, Stanislav, 118

Peel electoral district, Western Australia, 287

PEI Federation of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island, 209

Peking Summer Time, China, 319

Penang Chamber of Commerce, Malaysia, 317

pendulum clock, 20

Pennsylvania, US, 32, 125, 136, 140, 141, 142, 143, 146, 151, 152, 156, 157, 160, 167, 168, 378

Pennsylvania Railroad, 30

Penrose, John, 86

People’s Daily, China, 319

Peretz, Yitzhak, 322

Pernambuco, Brazil, 336, 387

Perry County, Indiana, 188

Perth, Western Australia, 40, 266, 282, 283, 286, 288, 290, 294, 379

Perth Chamber of Commerce, 282

Perth electoral district, Western Australia, 286, 294

Perth Plumbers’ Union, 282

Peru, 36, 332, 342, 343, 360, 364, 366, 388

Peterborough, Ontario, 203, 204

Peterborough, South Australia, 251

Peters, Andrew J., 123

Peto, Basil, 52

Petrel Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 395

Petrie, Joanne, ‘Mother Time’, 185

Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, US, 177

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia, 372

Petrusma, Hank, 241, 242

Petts Wood, London, 42, 49, 50

Pfaff, G. and Weber, E., Germany, study, 1980, 107

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30, 123, 132, 136, 137, 140, 141, 378

Philadelphia Museum of Art, 25

Philippines, 36, 315, 317, 318-319, 364, 384, 399

Philipps, Owen, 55

Philipsburg, Sint Maarten, 376

Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 363, 381

Phoenix, Arizona, 139, 152, 155, 376

Piauí, Brazil, 336, 387

Pickle Lake, Ontario, 214

Pierre, South Dakota, 140, 156, 379

Pilbara electoral district, Western Australia, 288

Pilkington, Richard, 70

Pinchot, Gifford, 141

Pine Rivers electoral district, Queensland, 268

Pitcairn Islands, 36, 380

Pitt, Warren, 271

Pittman, Vail, 162

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 32, 125, 132, 136, 141, 149

Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce, 124, 132

Plateau North electoral district, Kenya, 355

Playford, Thomas, 252

Playford electoral district, South Australia, 259

‘Plett time’, South Africa, 351

Plettenberg Bay, South Africa, 351

Plimsoll, James, 242

Plymouth, Montserrat, 375

Plymouth, UK, 29, 31

Plymouth electoral area, England, 47

pocket sundials, 18, 19, 21

pocket watches, 20, 21, 141

Podgorica, Montenegro, 362, 370, 397

Poincaré, Raymond, 93

Poland, 16, 37, 52, 53, 61, 65, 90, 91, 92, 106, 116, 117-118, 359, 362, 370

Police Federation, UK, 79

Policy Studies Institute, UK, 79

Polish Rationalist Association, 117

political parties, passim

Politico, US, 96

Pompeii, 13

Pompey, 8

Pompilius, Numa, 6, 7

Ponta Delgada, Azores, 371

Pope Benedict, 223

Pope Gregory XIII, 10, 11

Pope John Paul II, 339

Pope Pius IV, 10

Port Arthur, Tasmania, 196, 206, 212

Port Augusta, South Australia, 40

Port Louis, Mauritius, 365, 390

Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, 363, 380

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 364, 389

Port Pirie, South Australia, 40

Port Vila, Vanuatu, 363, 381

portable clock, 20

Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 363, 375

Port-aux-Français, Kerguelen Islands, 390

Portland, Maine, 139, 143, 377

Portland, Oregon, 136, 156, 163, 378

Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 387

Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil, 387

Porto-Novo, Benin, 364, 389

Portugal, 19, 37, 39, 53, 57, 61, 86, 90, 91, 92, 101, 102-104, 350, 355, 362, 370

Portuguese Embassy, Libya, 350

Postal and Telegraphic Conference, Brisbane, 1893, 40

Postal and Telegraphic Conference, New Zealand, 1894, 40

Pownall, Assheton, 67

Prague, Czech Republic, 65, 362, 369

Praia, Cape Verde, 355, 364, 389

Premiers’ Conferences, Australia, 232, 235, 246, 247, 253, 254, 264, 267, 283

Prentice, Malcolm, 351

Pretoria, South Africa, 365, 391

Price, Bill, 138

Price electoral district, South Australia, 259

Primary Producers’ Union, Australia, 250

Primavera Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 395

Prime Meridian Conference, Washington, D.C., 1884, 34-36

Prince Albert, city, Saskatchewan, 197

Prince Edward Island, Canada, 194, 196, 198, 201, 202, 208, 209, 212, 374, 398

Prince Rupert, city, British Columbia, 202

Princess Elisabeth Antarctica, Belgian base, 395

Prisk, Mark, 86

Pristina or Prishtina, Kosovo, 370

Pritchett, Henry Smith, 31

Privert, Jocelerme, 228

Profesor Julio Escudero Base, Chilean Antarctic base, 360, 395

Progress Station, Russian Antarctic base, 395

Providence, Rhode Island, 123, 132, 140, 156, 378

Provincial Daylight Saving Act, British Columbia, 200

Prussia, 117

Prussian House of Lords, 52

Ptolemy III Euergetes, 4

Ptolemy XIII, 8, 9

Ptolemy, Claudius, 17

Public Enterprises Department, South Africa, 351

Public Works Department, New Zealand, 307-308

Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, Galápagos Islands, 388

Puerto Rico, 36, 184, 215, 223-224, 228, 375

Pugsley, William, 199

Putin, Vladimir, 121

Pyongyang, North Korea, 364, 384

Qaanaaq (formerly Thule), Greenland, 230, 374

Qatar, 37, 315, 364, 384

Qing dynasty, China, 399

quartz crystal clocks, 21

Quebec, Canada, 194, 196, 199, 200-201, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208, 210, 212, 213, 214, 280, 374, 398

Quebec City, 194, 196, 202, 204, 374, 398

Queensland, Australia, 36, 40, 44, 232, 245, 249, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264-281, 282, 284, 288, 289, 379

Queensland Amateur Athletic Association, 265

Queensland Chamber of Commerce, 265

Queensland Chamber of Manufacturers, 265, 267

Queensland Cricket Association, 265

Queensland Farmers’ Union, 264

Queensland State Service Union, 249, 265

Quezon, Manuel, 318

Quinn, Bob, 276

Quinquet, Antoine, 23, 26

Quintana Roo, Mexico, 216, 217, 220, 222, 227, 375

Quito, Ecuador, 364, 388

Ra, Egyptian god, 3, 15

Rabat, Morocco, 346, 365, 390, 400

Raging Burrito, Decatur, Georgia, 189

‘ragtime saving’, 138

railroad time / railway time, 28-41, 47, 123, 126, 161, 397

Railway Association of Canada, 204

Raleigh, North Carolina, 140, 144-145, 155, 378

Ramadan, 324, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 399, 400

Rappenglueck, Dr Michael, 2

Rasmussen poll, US, 2014, 190

Rauchfuß, Wolfgang, 107

Reagan, Ronald, 183

‘real time’, Pakistan, 321

‘real time’, UK, 68

Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, 387

Red Eléctrica de España, Spain, study, 2008, 101

Red Sea, 348

Redcliffe electoral district, Queensland, 275

Redecker, Dave, 184

Redland, Queensland, 279

Redlands electoral district, Queensland, 274

Reece, Eric, 236, 237, 238, 240

Reed, Clyde, 168

Referendum (Daylight Saving) Act 1982, South Australia, 258

Referendum (Daylight Saving) Bill, South Australia, 257

Regina, Saskatchewan, 61, 194, 197, 199, 202, 203, 204, 210, 213, 374, 398

Reincke and Van Den Broek study, Europe, 1999, 101

Renaud, Dr George, 32, 126

Renmark, South Australia, 251

Report of the Trial of Daylight Saving, Queensland, 269-270

Research Centre for the Study and Observation of Living Conditions (CRÉDOC) studies, 1990s, 2012, 96, 97

Research Centre in Energy Economics, Munich, study, 1974, 106

Research New Zealand, survey, 2008, 310-311

‘resort time’, Egypt, 348

Retail Merchants’ Association, Canada, 197

Retail Traders’ Association, New South Wales, 253

Retail Traders’ Association, Tasmania, 238

Retailers Association, US, 174

Reul, Herbert, 108

Réunion, 37, 391

‘Review of British Standard Time’, White Paper, UK, 75

Reykjavik, Iceland, 60, 114, 116, 362, 370

Rhett, R. G., 125

Rhode Island, US, 136, 140, 143, 151, 156, 167, 168, 192, 378

Richardson, Kathy, 185

Richmond, Virginia, 132, 140, 156, 165-166, 379

Richmond, Keith, 256

Riefler, Siegmund, 21

Rift Valley electoral district, Kenya, 355

Riga, Latvia, 60, 116, 362, 370

Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil, 338, 386

Rio de Janeiro, city, Brazil, 34, 336, 337, 387

Rio de Janeiro, state, Brazil, 335, 336, 387, 399

Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 336, 387

Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 336, 387

Riordan, William, 265

Risdale, P. S., 127

Riverton electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 364, 384

Road Town, Virgin Islands (British), 379

Roberts, Elisa, 276

Roberts, Pat, 183

Rochester, New York, 132, 137, 184

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle, New York, 150

Rockhampton electoral district, Queensland, 274

Rockingham electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Rocky River electoral district, South Australia, 259

Roe, Dudley, 161

Roe electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Roenneberg, Till, and Thomas Kantermann, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, study, 2007, 108

Rogers, Harold, 183

Roleystone electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Rolvaag, Karl, 166

Roman calendar, 6-9

Romania, 37, 90, 92, 116-117, 118, 362, 371, 394

Romanian Oil Gazette, or Monitorul Petrolului Român, 116

Rome/Romans, Italy, 4, 6-9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 34, 362, 370

Romulus, 6

Rondônia, Brazil, 335, 387

Roosevelt, Franklin, 149, 151

Roraima, Brazil, 335, 336, 387

Roseau, Dominica, 362, 374

Ross, William, 74

Ross Smith electoral district, South Australia, 259

Rosselló, Pedro, 224

Rossendale electoral area, England, 68

Rosser, Manitoba, 198

RosStandard, Russia, 120

Rothera Research Station, UK Antarctic base, 358, 395

Rousseff, Dilma, 337

Royal, Ségolène, 97

Royal Astronomical Society, UK, 42

Royal Dutch Shell oil company, 116

Royal Navy, 57

Royal Observatory, 28, 36

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, 68, 75, 79, 84, 88-89

Royal Society of New Zealand, 311

Royal Vinolia Shaving Cream, 200

RT (formerly Russia Today), 120

Rubenstein, Amnon, 322

Rudd, R. J., 21

Rural District Councils Association, UK, 71

Russia, 11, 36, 37, 38, 39, 53, 60, 61, 90, 91, 92, 112, 113, 119-121, 315, 359, 362, 366, 371, 384, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398

Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 120

Russian Revolution, 60

Rutherford, Ernest, 311

Rwanda, 37, 345, 365, 391

Saba, 37, 215, 375

Sabah, Malaysia, 318

Sabbath, 249, 322

Sacramento, California, 139, 155, 376

‘Saddam time’, Kurds, 324

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, 347

Saint Barthélemy, 37, 215, 375

Saint Boniface, Manitoba, 198

Saint Helena, 37, 391

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, 391

Saint Helier, Jersey, 373

Saint John River, New Brunswick, 212

Saint John, New Brunswick, 194, 196, 198, 201, 202, 204, 373, 397

Saint Kitts and Nevis, 37, 215, 363, 375

Saint Lucia, 37, 215, 363, 376

Saint Martin, 37, 215, 376

Saint Paul, Minnesota, 139, 146, 148, 155, 166, 377

Saint Petersburg, Russia, 34, 39

Saint Petersburg’s Committee for the Restoration of Standard Time in Russia, 39

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, 37, 215, 229, 376

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 37, 215, 363, 376

Saint-Denis, Réunion, 391

Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, 376

Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, 380

Sakura Research Institute, Japan, 328

Salem, Oregon, 140, 156, 163, 378

Salisbury electoral district, South Australia, 259

Salt Lake City, Utah, 140, 156, 379

Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 386

Salzburg, Austria, 110

Samara, Russia, 120, 371

Samoa, 37, 311, 313, 363, 381

Samuel, Albert, 303

Samuel, Herbert, 55

San Diego, California, 222

San Francisco, California, 136, 144, 327

San José, Costa Rica, 226, 362, 374

San Juan, Puerto Rico, 375

San Luis, Argentina, 333, 334

San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 220

San Marino, 36, 56, 61, 90, 92, 112, 362, 372

San Marino City / Dogana, 362, 372

San Martín, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 395

San Salvador, El Salvador, 363, 374

Sana’a/Sanaa/Sana, Yemen, 364, 385

Sanae IV, South African Antarctic base, 395

Sandgate electoral district, Queensland, 275

Sandinistas, Nicaragua, 226

Sandringham, England, 45

Sanhedrin, Jewish court, 5

Santa Ana Register, California, 144

Santa Catarina, Brazil, 336, 387-388

Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 385

Santa Fe, New Mexico, 140, 155, 378

Santiago, Chile, 338, 340, 364, 388, 399

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 228, 363, 374, 398

São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, 386

São Paulo, city, Brazil, 337, 388

São Paulo, state, Brazil, 335, 336, 388, 399

São Tomé, São Tomé and Principe, 365, 391

São Tomé and Principe, 37, 345, 365, 391

Sapporo Chamber of Commerce, Japan, 329

Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 362, 369, 397

Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Florida, 328

Sarawak, Malaysia, 315, 318, 383, 399

Saskatchewan, Canada, 194, 196-197, 199, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208, 209-210, 212, 213-214, 280, 374, 398

Saskatchewan Association of Rural Municipalities, 208

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 194, 197, 201, 202, 374, 398

Sassoon, Edward, 46

Saudi Arabia, 37, 315, 364, 384

Saylor, Steven, 7

Scaffidi, Lisa, 294

Scandinavia, 54, 60, 113

Scandpower AB, company, Sweden, 331

Scarborough electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Scattered Islands, 391

Scenic Rim, Queensland, 279

Schmidt, Helmut, 106

Schneider, Mary Beth, 185

Scholtz, Joseph, 148

Schriker, Henry, 148

Schwartze, Helmuth, 355

Scotland, 47, 64, 68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88-89, 373

Scotland Bill, 83

Scott Base, New Zealand Antarctic base, 359, 360, 395

Scottish National Party, 86, 87, 89

Scythia Minor, 9

‘seasonal time’, George Hudson, New Zealand, 295, 296

Seattle, Washington, 379

Seeking Imperialism’s Embrace: National Identity, Decolonization, and Assimilation in the French Caribbean, Kristen Stromberg Childers, 229

Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time, David Prerau, 59, 124, 127

Semaphore electoral district, South Australia, 259

Senate Enrolled Act 127, Indiana, 188

Senegal, 37, 344, 345, 365, 367, 391

Seoul, South Korea, 364, 384

Serbia, 36, 91, 92, 118, 362, 372, 397

Serekunda, Gambia, 390

Sergipe, Brazil, 336, 388

Seward, Alaska, 124

Seychelles, 36, 345, 365, 391

Seyðisfjörður, Iceland, 116

shadow clock, 18

Shahal, Moshe, 322

Shanghai, China, 319, 399

Shaw, George, 243

Sheffield, England, 47

Sherbrooke, Quebec, 204, 208

Shimoda, Y., 330

Shinwell, Emanuel, 69

Shiprock (Navajo Nation), New Mexico, 139, 140, 378

Shortt, W. H., 21

Showa Station, Japanese Antarctic base, 395

Sibal, Kapil, 321

Siberia, 120

Sicily, Italy, 17

sidereal calendar, 3

Sidey, Thomas Kay, 295, 296, 297, 298-300, 301, 302-305, 306-307, 311

‘Sidey time’, New Zealand, 306

Siege of Kut, 54

Sierra Leone, 37, 92, 344, 345, 353-354, 365, 367, 391, 400

Signy Research Station, UK Antarctic base, 357, 358, 395

Šilar, Peter, 118

Simmonds, David, study, 2012, 87-88

Sims, Thetus, 130

Sinai, Egypt, 176, 178

Sinaloa, Mexico, 217, 220, 222

Singapore, 36, 315, 317, 318, 364, 384, 399

Singapore Chamber of Commerce, 317

single double summer time, UK, 78-89, 96, 98

Sino-Indian War, 1962, 320

Sint Eustatius, 37, 215, 376

Sint Maarten, 37, 215, 376

Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 379

Sirius, 3, 9

Skopje, Macedonia, 362, 370

Slack, Ernest, 143

Slovakia, 36, 53, 61, 91, 92, 116, 117, 118, 362, 372

Slovenia, 36, 91, 92, 108, 118, 362, 372, 397

Small, Bruce, 267

Smith, Al, 133

Smith, Ellis, 67

Smith, Payson, 142

Smith, thief, 200

Smith, William Forgan, 265

Snadden, William, 68, 70

Sobral Base, Argentine Antarctic base, 357, 395

Social and Economic Council, Netherlands, study, 1968, 99

Society of Civil Engineers, US, 31

Society of Medical Officers of Health, UK, 64

Sofia, Bulgaria, 61, 362, 369

Sofres poll, UK, 95

solar calendar, 3

Solar Hijri calendar, Iran, 324

Solomon Islands, 37, 363, 381

Somalia, 36, 345, 365, 391

Somaliland, 391

Somerset, England, 66

Somerset Guardian, England, 56

Sommerzeit, 52, 105

Somoza DeBayle, Anastasio, 226

Sonjica, Buyelwa, 351

Sonora, Mexico, 216, 217, 220, 221, 222, 375

Sony, company, Japan, 331

Sør-Varanger, Norway, 115

Souris, Prince Edward Island, 209

South Africa, 92, 345, 351-352, 365, 391

South America, 38, 332-343, 357, 361, 364, 366, 385-389

South American Championship, soccer, 1923, 341

South Australia, 36, 39, 40, 232, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246-247, 250, 251, 252-253, 254, 255, 257-259, 261-263, 267, 280, 299, 379

South Brisbane electoral district, Queensland, 275

South Carolina, US, 140, 149, 156, 168, 171, 379

South Dakota, US, 32, 140, 156, 167, 168, 171, 172, 191, 192, 280, 379

South Esk, Tasmania, 238

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, 388-389

South Korea, 92, 316, 326-327, 360, 364, 384

South Korea study, 2007, 2009, 327

South Orkney Islands, 357

South Ossetia, 384, 399

South Peace River, British Colunbia, 212

South Perth electoral district, Western Australia, 287

South Sudan, 344, 345, 365, 367, 391

South Tarawa, Kiribati, 363, 380

Southampton Island, Nunavut, 214

Southern River electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Southland Corporation, US, 181, 182

Southport electoral district, Queensland, 274

Soviet Union, see USSR

Spain, 35, 36, 53, 60, 61, 62, 76, 77, 90, 91, 92, 98, 100-102, 106, 119, 346, 347, 359, 362, 372, 393, 394

Spanish Civil War, 100

Sparkes, Robert, 269

Spence electoral district, South Australia, 259

Spender, Percy, 249

Spiegel Online, German news site, 109

Sport and Recreation Alliance, UK, 85

Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association, US, 182

Sports Council, UK, 79

Sports Protection League, New Zealand, 303

Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time, Michael Downing, 30

Springfield, Illinois, 139, 148, 155, 377

Springwood electoral district, Queensland, 274

Srednekolymsk, Russia, 372

Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte / Kotte, Sri Lanka, 384, 399

Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), 36, 37, 39, 316, 319, 321, 364, 384-385, 399

St. Catharines, Ontario, 203, 204

St. George’s, Grenada, 363, 374

St. John’s, Antigua and Barbuda, 362, 373

St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, 62, 194, 199, 201, 203, 204, 211, 374, 397

St. Kliment Ohridski Base, Bulgarian Antarctic base, 360, 395

St Leonards Council, Tasmania, 233

St. Louis, Missouri, 30, 158, 165

St Mark’s Clock Tower, Venice, Italy, 16

St Peter Port, Guernsey, 372

St. Peter’s Square, Vatican City, 17

Staffordshire, England, 67

Staggers, Harley, 168-169

standard time, passim

Standard Time Act 1895, each Australian colony, 40

Standard Time Act 1945, New Zealand, 308

Standard Time Act 1971, New South Wales, 255

Standard Time Act 1987, New South Wales, 255

Standard Time Act of 1918, or Calder Act, US, 33, 127, 142, 398

Standard Time Amendment Act 1956, New Zealand, 308

Standard Time and Daylight Saving Act 1974, Norfolk Island, 255

Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972, Australian Capital Territory, 255

Standard Time Bill, 1920, New Zealand, 301, 307

Standard Time Bill, 1921, New Zealand, 302, 307

Standard Time Bill, 1945, New Zealand, 308

Standard Time League, Canada, 208

standard time zones, origins, 31

Stanley, Falkland Islands, 334, 388

‘Stanley time’, Falkland Islands, 334

star clock / merkhet, 18

Starke County, Indiana, 188

State Board of Canvassers, Michigan, 174, 175

State Energy Commission of Western Australia, 290

State Grange, Oregon, 163

State Information Service, Egypt, 348

Statute Law Revision Act, Tasmania, 243

Statutes (Definition of Time) Act 1880, 30

Stauning, Thorvald, 113

Steer, John, 236-240, 241

Stepanakert/Khankendi, Nagorno-Karabakh, 384

Stephens, Matt, 285

Sterling, Henry, 130

Stewart, D. C., 126

Stewart, Frederick, 249

Stirling electoral district, Western Australia, 260, 287

Stockholm, Sweden, 33, 34, 362, 372

Stoke, England, 67

Stoke-on-Trent electoral area, England, 67

Stone, Richard, 177

Storekeepers’ Association, Victoria, 245

Straits Settlements, 317-318

Strasbourg, France, 94

Street, Geoffrey, 250

Strutt, Horace, 236

Stuart, James, 70

Stuart electoral district, South Australia, 259

Stubbs, Claude, 283, 284

Subiaco electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Sucre, Bolivia, 364, 385

Sudan, 37, 344, 345, 354, 365, 367, 391

Sudbury, Ontario, 204

Suffolk, England, 68

Sukhumi, Abkhazia, 381

Sullivan, Reginald, 148

Sumerian calendar, 4

Sumerians, 4, 12-13, 15, 17

‘summer hours’, 209

Summer Season Time Bills, UK, 1911-1914, 48-49

summer time, government surveys, 1987, 1988, UK, 78-79

summer time, passim, esp. 52-121

Summer Time (Local Empowering) Bill, 1928, New Zealand, 305-306, 307

Summer Time (Repeal) Act 1993, Vanuatu, 313

Summer Time Act 1916, UK, 55, 58, 63, 64

Summer Time Act 1922, UK, 64, 72, 77

Summer Time Act 1925, UK, 65, 68, 70, 72, 77

Summer Time Act 1927, New Zealand, 305

Summer Time Act 1928, New Zealand, 306

Summer Time Act 1929, New Zealand, 306

Summer Time Act 1947, UK, 69, 70, 72, 77

Summer Time Act 1972, UK, 77, 80, 84, 87, 88

Summer Time Act 1972, Victoria, 255

Summer Time Act 1982, Vanuatu, 313

Summer Time Act 1990, Queensland, 271, 275, 289

Summer Time Amendment Act 1933, New Zealand, 307

Summer Time Amendment Bill, 1933, New Zealand, 307

summer time Attitude Survey, 1960, 71-72

Summer Time Bill 1916, UK, 55

Summer Time Bill 1946, Hong Kong, 320

Summer Time Bill 1990, Queensland, 271

Summer Time Bill 1991, Western Australia, 289

Summer Time Bill 2005, Japan, 330

Summer Time Bill 2008, Japan, 330

Summer Time Bill, 1924, New Zealand, 302, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1925, New Zealand, 302-303, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1926, New Zealand, 303, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1927, New Zealand, 303-305, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1928 (government bill), New Zealand, 306, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1928, New Zealand, 305, 307

Summer Time Bill, 1929, New Zealand, 306, 307

summer time bills, 1990s, Japan, 328

Summer Time Committee study, UK, 1916, 1917, 57-58

Summer Time Order 2002, UK, 88

Summer Time Ordinance 1946, Hong Kong, 320

Summer Time Repeal Act 1992, Queensland, 275

summer time review, UK, 1966, 1967, 73

‘summer timing’, Libya, 349

Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 209

Summertime scheme, Tokyo, 331

‘sun time’, Palm Springs, California, 161

sundials, 15, 17, 18, 19

Sung, Su, 18

Sunnybank electoral district, Queensland, 274

Sunshine Coast, Queensland, 264, 268, 271, 279

Sunshine Protection Act, Florida, 191

Superior, Wisconsin, 126

Superior Court, Massachusetts, 134

Supreme Court, Mexico, 221

Supreme Court of the United States, 32, 142, 174, 175

Supreme National Defence Council, China, 319

Surfers Paradise electoral district, Queensland, 274, 276, 278

Suriname, 37, 332, 364, 389

Suva, Fiji, 363, 380

Suzhou, China, 319

Svalbard, 36, 115, 370

Svea Research Station, Swedish Antarctic base, 395

Swan electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Swan Hills electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Swanston, W. H., 249

Swaziland, 36, 345, 365, 391-392

Sweden, 33, 36, 53, 54, 61, 91, 92, 108, 113, 114, 115-116, 362, 372, 395, 396

Switzerland, 36, 60, 91, 92, 93, 109-110, 362, 372

Sydney, New South Wales, 232, 243, 246, 247, 248, 249, 257, 290, 379

Syracuse, New York, 132, 137

Syria, 37, 92, 176, 316, 317, 324, 364, 385

  1. K. Sidey Medal, 311

Tabasco, Mexico, 220

Tablelands electoral district, Queensland, 275

Taft, William Howard, 123

Taipei, Taiwan, 385

Taishan Station, Chinese Antarctic base, 395

Tait, Thomas, 245

Taiwan, 5, 36, 316, 320, 385

Tajikistan, 37, 316, 324, 364, 366, 385

Tallahassee, Florida, 139, 155, 376

Tallinn, Estonia, 60, 116, 362, 369

Tamaulipas, Mexico, 217, 218, 220

Tamez, Reyes, 221

Tang dynasty, China, 12

Tangier, 62, 345, 346

Tanner, William, 296

Tanzania, 37, 344, 345, 365, 367, 392

Taranaka Herald, New Zealand, 297

Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 364, 385

Tasman Bridge, Hobart, Tasmania, 238

Tasman Sea, 295

Tasmania, Australia, 36, 40, 61, 62, 232-244, 245, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 267, 272, 301, 358, 379

Tasmanian commerce chambers, 239

Tasmanian Farmers and Graziers Association, 239

Tasmanian Tourist Council, 240

Tate, Mavis, 66

Taveuni Island, 312

Taxpayers’ Association, Queensland, 265

Tbilisi, Georgia, 325, 363, 382, 399

‘Tea Garden Time’, or chai bagaan (black tea) time, or bagaan time, India, 321

Ted Weems Orchestra, 144

Tegucigalpa/Tegus, Honduras, 363, 375

Teheran, Iran, 363, 383

Ten Years of Daylight Saving from the Pittsburgh Standpoint, Robert Garland, 125

Tener, John K., 125

Tennessee, US, 130, 132, 140, 148, 149, 156, 157, 158-160, 168, 171, 191, 192, 280, 379

Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, 387

Terna Group, Italy, 112

Texas, US, 126, 140, 156, 168, 171, 192, 218, 264, 280, 379

Thailand, 37, 316, 364, 385

The Advertiser, Adelaide, South Australia, 245

‘The application of summertime in Europe’, study, 2014, 119

The Argus, Melbourne, Victoria, 246, 249, 250, 251

The Arizona Republic, Phoenix, 221

The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, 23

The Boston Post, Massachusetts, 134, 135

The Bottom, Saba, 375

The Brandon Sun, Manitoba, 210

The Canadian Press, survey, 1962, 210

The Canberra Times, Australian Capital Territory, 238, 255

The Chilliwack Progress, British Columbia, 206

The Christian Science Monitor, US, 225

The Daily Mail, Hagerstown, Maryland, 160

The Daily Republican, Monongahela, Pennsylvania, 141

The Daily Telegraph, Launceston, Tasmania, 234

‘The Day of Two Noons’, US, 31

‘The daylight saving time study’, Department of Transportation, US, 1975, 180

‘The daylight saving time study’, Department of Transportation, US, 1975, 180

The Detroit Free Press, Michigan, 130

The Dominion, New Zealand, 296

The Evening Post, New Zealand, 305

The Evening Republican, Columbus, Indiana, 146

The Evening Star, New Zealand, 246

The Examiner, Launceston, Tasmania, 235, 243

The Fresno Bee, California, 92

The Guardian, United Kingdom, 87

The Hawke’s Bay Tribune, New Zealand, 300

The Indianapolis Star, Indiana, 173, 174, 185, 186, 187, 188

The Indianapolis Star Magazine, Indiana, 164

The International Atlas, 2005, Shanks and Pottenger, 319

The Kingston Daily Freeman, New York, 169

‘the Lord’s time’, Toronto, Ontario, 200

The Ludington Daily News, Michigan, 175

The Mail, Adelaide, South Australia, 251

The Mercury, Hobart, Tasmania, 53, 234, 235, 238

The Morals of Chess, essay, Benjain Franklin, 24

The Nashville Tennessean, 158

The New York Times, New York, 132

The New Zealand Herald, Auckland, 308

The Ottawa Evening Journal, Ontario, 200, 204

The Ottawa Journal, Ontario, 48, 204, 205

The Pittsburgh Press, Pennsylvania, 151

The Portugal News Online, 104

The Poverty Bay Herald, New Zealand, 296

The Royal Society of Tasmania, 233, 240

The Salt Lake Tribune, Utah, 161

The Settlement / Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island, 382

The South Australian Government Gazette, 259

The St. Petersburg Times, Russia, 39

The Stanstead Journal, Quebec, 111

The Straits Times, Straits Settlements, 317

The Sunday Mail, Brisbane, Queensland, 271

The Sunday Times, Perth, Western Australia, 288, 289

The Sydney Morning Herald, New South Wales, 93, 248

The Time Act, 1966, Saskatchewan, 210

The Times, London, England, 29, 56

The Valley, Anguilla, 373

The Waikato Argus, New Zealand, 300

The Wanganui Chronicle, New Zealand, 299

The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., 137, 138

The Washington Times, Washington, D.C., 138

The Waste of Daylight, booklet, William Willett, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49

The West Australian, 282, 289, 292

The Winnipeg Tribune, Manitoba, 207

Thimphu, Bhutan, 363, 381

Thomson, George, 297, 298

Thor, god, 13

Thornlie electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Thunder Bay, Ontario, 196

Thuringowa electoral district, Queensland, 274

Thye, Edward, 153

Tiberias, Israel, 322

Tibet, 37, 41, 315, 382, 399

Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, 217, 222, 375, 398

Tilbury, Ontario, 211

Time Act 1974, New Zealand, 308

Time Act 1980, Switzerland, 110

Time and Date AS, 38, 62, 91, 92, 140, 156, 196, 204, 216, 217, 223, 262, 316, 332, 336, 341, 345, 358, 360, 366, 396, 399

time balls, 31

Time Committee, Saskatchewan, 210

‘Time for change: Setting clocks forward by one hour throughout the year – A new review of the evidence’, report, 1993, Mayer Hillman, 79

‘time island’, certain US states, 171

‘time island’, Switzerland, 111

Time Question Plebiscite Act, 1956, Saskatchewan, 209

‘Time Question’, Saskatchewan, 210

Time Uniformity Act, Prince Edward Island, 207, 209

time zones, passim

Time Zones and Summer Time (Devolution) Bill, UK, 83-84

Times-News, Hendersonville, North Carolina, 96

Tirana, Albania, 362, 369

Tiraspol, Transnistria, 372

Tishkov, Arkady, 121

Tito, Teburoro, 311

Tiw, Nordic god, 13

Tlaxcala, Mexico, 220

TNS Gallup polls, 108, 115

Tocantins, Brazil, 335, 337, 338, 388

‘Today’s work by the light of day’ campaign, Denmark, 1940, 113

Todd, Charles, 40

Todd electoral district, South Australia, 259

Togo, 36, 345, 365, 392

Tokelau, New Zealand, 36, 380

Tokyo, Japan, 34, 328, 331, 363, 383

Toledo, Ohio, 167

Tonga, 37, 92, 311, 312, 363, 381

Tonkin, David, 257, 258

Tonkin, John, 284, 285

Toodyay electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Toowoomba, Queensland, 270, 274, 275, 278, 281

Toowoomba North electoral district, Queensland, 274

Toowoomba South electoral district, Queensland, 274

Topeka, Kansas, 139, 155, 377

Tor, Norwegian Antarctic base, 360, 395

Toronto, Ontario, 34, 194, 197, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 208, 211, 213, 374

Torr, Gerald, 186

Torrens electoral district, South Australia, 259

Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, 369

Toshiba, company, Japan, 331

Tower of the Winds, Athens, Greece, 18

Townley, Rex, 236

Townsville electoral district, Queensland, 274

Trades and Labour Council, Canada, 197

Trades and Labour Council, Queensland, 265

Trades Union Congress, UK, 71, 73

‘train time’, Australia, 40

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 295

Transnistria, 119, 121, 372

Transport Research Laboratory (formerly Road Research Laboratory), UK, 75, 80, 82

Transportation Department / Interstate Commerce Commission, including studies, US, 39, 151, 158, 165, 168, 171, 172, 173, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 185, 187, 188, 398

Transvaal, 36

Travel Victoria, 280

Treasury Department, US, 177

Treehugger, 333

Trenton, New Jersey, 140, 155, 378

Trevallyn power station, Tasmania, 236

Trinidad and Tobago, 37, 332, 364, 389

Tripoli, Libya, 349, 350, 365, 390

Tristan da Cunha, 391

Troge, Andreas, 108

Troll, Norwegian Antarctic base, 360, 395

Tromelin Island, 391, 400

Truman, Harry S., 154, 156, 161

Tskhinvali, South Ossetia, 384, 399

Tuba City (Navajo Nation), Arizona, 378

Tucker, Wilson, 294

Tudor, Frank, 248

Tungatinah power station, Tasmania, 236

Tunis, Tunisia, 350, 351, 365, 392, 400

Tunisia, 37, 345, 350-351, 365, 392, 400

Turco-German Trade Agreement, 316

Turkey, 17, 37, 61, 92, 316-317, 364, 385

Turkish War of Independence, 316

Turkmenistan, 37, 316, 324, 364, 366, 385

Turks, Ottoman Empire, 54

Turks and Caicos Islands, 37, 215, 227, 376

‘Turn off the tap’ campaign, Colombia, 342

Tusk, Donald, 117

Tutankhaten, 4

Tuvalu, 36, 363, 381

Tweed Heads, New South Wales, 276

Uganda, 37, 344, 345, 365, 367, 392

UK chambers of commerce, 47, 49

Ukraine, 37, 91, 92, 118, 119, 121, 362, 372, 396

Ulan Bator / Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 326, 364, 383

Ulmer, John, 187

‘Understanding attitudes towards daylight saving in Queensland’, research project, 277-278

Unifarm, Canada, 212

‘Uniform non-local time (terrestrial time)’, paper, Sandford Fleming, Canada, 34

Uniform Time Act of 1966, US, 169, 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 183, 184, 190, 192, 223, 397

Union of Communication Workers, UK, 80-81

Union Station, Toronto, 211

United Arab Emirates, 37, 316, 364, 385

United Farmers’ and Woolgrowers’ Association of New South Wales, 254, 256

United Graziers’ Association, Queensland, 267

United Kingdom / Great Britain, 11, 20, 21-22, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42-50, 52-89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100, 102, 105, 111, 114, 123, 124, 129, 136, 153, 194, 196, 199, 227, 232, 237, 241, 245, 264, 265, 295, 297, 301, 308, 321, 334, 347, 349, 351, 353, 357, 358, 362, 372-373, 396, 397, 398, 399

United Retail Federation, Australia, 279

United States / America, 17, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 61, 62, 99, 102, 105, 114, 123-193, 196, 199, 200, 203, 205, 207, 212, 213, 214, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 226, 227, 228, 229, 245, 279-280, 295, 301, 309, 312, 326, 327, 330, 331, 339, 342, 359, 360, 361, 363, 366, 375, 376-379, 380, 381, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398

United States Congress, 31, 123, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 137, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 156, 161, 168, 169, 171, 176, 178, 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 398

United States District Court, 142

United States Hydrographic Office, 92

United States Minor Outlying Islands, 36, 381

United States Supreme Court, 142

Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), 35

Universal Time (UT), 35

University of Alabama, study, 2012, 190

University of Bergen, Norway, study, 115

University of British Columbia, study, 1991-1992, 213

University of California, study, 2006, 188

University of Cambridge, UK, study, 2006, 84

University of Chicago, Illinois, study, 1974, 178

University of Guadalajara, Mexico, study, 1999, 219

University of Jordan, study, 2000, 323

University of Munich, Germany, 2

University of Munich, study, 2007, 108

University of New England, New South Wales, 256

University of Regina, Saskatchewan, study, 2014, 213

University of Saskatchewan, 210

University of Turku, Finland, study, 116

University of Wollongong, New South Wales, 277

Unley electoral district, South Australia, 259

Urban District Councils Association, UK, 71

Uruguay, 37, 332, 333, 334, 340-342, 359, 364, 366, 389, 399

US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 109

US Capitol building, Washington, D.C., 128

US Chamber of Commerce, 125

US Chess Hall of Fame, 24

U.S. Energy Information Administration, 227

Ushuaia, Argentina, 357, 358

USSR / Soviet Union (see also Russia), 13, 68, 105, 106, 107, 110, 113, 117, 118, 120, 149, 176, 324, 325, 326, 399

Utah, US, 140, 156, 168, 171, 191, 192, 379, 398

UTC (Coordinated Universal Time), passim

Utrecht University, Netherlands, 97

Uzbekistan, 37, 316, 324, 364, 366, 385

Vaduz, Liechtenstein, 362

Valades, Diego, 221

Valletta, Malta, 362, 370

van den Bergh, George, 99

Vancouver, British Columbia, 194, 201, 202, 203, 205, 373

Vancouver Daily World, British Columbia, 201-202

Vanuatu, 37, 311, 313, 363, 381

Vargas, Getúlio, 335

Vasse electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Vatican City, 17, 36, 56, 61, 91, 92, 112, 362, 373

Vázquez, Tabaré, 341

Venezuela, 37, 39, 332, 364, 389

Venice, 16, 34

Venus, 4

Vermont, US, 140, 141, 143, 148, 156, 167, 168, 379

Vernadsky Research Base, Ukrainian Antarctic base, 396

Verran, John, 247

Vichy government, France, 93

Victoria, Australia, 36, 40, 44, 49, 232, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245-246, 247, 248, 249, 250-251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 259, 260, 261-262, 264, 266, 267, 280, 297, 379

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 194, 201, 202, 373

Victoria, Seychelles, 365, 391

Victoria electoral district, South Australia, 259

Victoria Park electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Victorian Bowling Association, Australia, 249

Victorian Chamber of Commerce, Australia, 246

Vienna, Austria, 59, 110, 111, 362, 369

Vienna Offensive, 110

Vienna University of Economics and Business, study, 1981, 111

Vientiane, Laos, 364, 383

Vietnam, 37, 316, 364, 385

Vietnam War, 256

Vilnius, Lithuania, 362, 370

Vincennes, 30, 188

Virgin Islands, 37, 184, 215, 379

Virginia, US, 132, 137, 140, 149, 156, 165, 167, 168, 171, 177, 379

Virginia Beach, Virginia, 379

Virtual Tourist, 353

Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, 81

Viscount Mountgarret, 81

Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, 386

Vitruvius, 18

Vladivostok, Russia, 371

Vladivostok Time, 39

Vockins, Daniel, 87

Vorarlberg, Austria, 110

Vosper, Dennis, 72

Vostok Station, Russian Antarctic base, 396

Wagin electoral district, Western Australia, 287, 292

Wagner, David, 190

Wagner, Jaques, 337

WAIS Divide camp, US Antarctic base, 359, 360, 396

Waitangi, Chatham Islands, 380

Wake Island/Atoll, 381

Waldron, Terry, 292

Waldshut-Tiengen, Gemany, 108

Wales, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 373

Walkden, Alexander, 68

Walker, George, 68

Wallaceburg, Ontario, 211

Wallis and Futuna Islands, 36, 381

Walvis Bay, Namibia, 352

Wambro electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Wanneroo electoral district, Western Australia, 286

War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act 1920, UK, 64

War Legislation Bill, New Zealand, 300

War Production Board, US, 152, 153

War Saving Committee, UK, 55

War Time, 56, 129, 151, 152-153, 154, 155, 156, 320, 396, 398

Ward, Joseph, 296, 297, 298, 306

Warrego electoral district, Queensland, 275

Warren, Earl, 161

Warren, George, 138

Warren electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Warsaw, Poland, 117, 362, 370

Warwick electoral district, Queensland, 275

Wasa Research Station, Swedish Antarctic base, 396

Washington, D.C. (see also District of Columbia), US, 31, 34, 35, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 131, 137-138, 139, 152, 153, 155, 160, 161, 165, 180, 181, 363, 376, 397

Washington, state, US, 124, 136, 140, 146, 156, 163-164, 167, 168, 183, 192, 379

Washington Senators, baseball, 124

water clock, 18

Waterford electoral district, Queensland, 274

Waterloo, Illinois, 165

Waterson, Nigel, 80-81

Watt, William, 246

Wauchope, Robert, 31

Weather Spark, 156, 196, 396

Weber, E., 107

WebExhibits, 2, 24, 42

Wedd, Bill, 237

weeks, 12-14

Weimar Republic, 105

Welland, Ontario, 203

Wellington, New Zealand, 299, 301, 302, 306, 308, 363, 380, 399

Wellington, Peter, 278

Wellington electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Wellington North electoral district, New Zealand, 296

Wellington Philosophical Institute/Society, 295, 301

Welshpool electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Weno, Federated States of Micronesia, 380

West, Benjamin, 25

West Africa, 13

West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide camp, US base, 359, 360

West Bank, 322

West Berlin, Germany, 105

West Germany, 105-107

West Indies, 20, 21

West Island / Bantam, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, 382

West Swan electoral district, Western Australia, 286

West Virginia, US, 140, 143, 145, 156, 165, 167, 168, 379

Western Australia, 36, 40, 232, 235, 245, 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 257, 259, 260, 261, 262, 265, 266, 282-294, 379

Western Downs electoral district, Queensland, 275

Western Europe, 38, 90-116

Western European Time, 94

Western European Time Bill, UK, 81

Western Sahara, 37, 344, 345, 347, 352, 392, 400

Western Standard Time, Australia, 291

‘When It’s Daylight Saving Time in Oshkosh (I’d Rather be in Kalamazoo)’, song, 144

Wherry, Kenneth, 153

Whitcomb, Edgar, 173

Whitehorse, Yukon, 194, 211, 374

Whitehouse, David, 2

Whitehouse, J. H., 125

Whitford electoral district, Western Australia, 286

Whitlam, Gough, 260

Whitsunday electoral district, Queensland, 275

Whitsunday Islands, Queensland, 275-276

Whyalla electoral district, South Australia, 259

Wichita, Kansas, 377

Wiener Stadtwerke, Vienna, 111

Wilford, Thomas, 297

Wilhelm II, 62

Willagee electoral district, Western Australia, 287

Willcock, John, 283

Willemstad, Curaçao, 388

Willett, William, 42-50, 123, 199, 236, 239, 245, 295, 296

Willett Building Services, 42

‘Willett time’, UK, 56

William Penn Hotel, Pennsylvania, 125

Williams, Jack, 172

Willing, Kathy, 185

Willis, Simeon, 157

Willis Island, Australia, 380

Willson, Robert, 126

Wilmington, Delaware, 139, 141, 146, 376

Wilmington Morning News, Delaware, 153

Wilson, John, 57

Wilson, Woodrow, 125, 126, 130, 131, 200

Wiltshire, England, 52

Windhoek, Namibia, 352, 365, 391

Windhoek Observer, Namibia, 353

Window Rock (Navajo Nation), Arizona, 140, 156, 378

Windsor, Ontario, 210

Winfrey, Richard, 47

Wingo, Otis, 127

Winnipeg, Manitoba, 61, 194, 198, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207, 208, 210, 373

Winnipeg Council, 198, 202, 207

‘winter time’, Jordan, 323

Winter War, 113

Winters, Daniel, 132

Wisconsin, US, 32, 126, 130, 132, 136, 140, 141, 143, 153, 156, 165, 166, 167, 168, 175, 379

Witwatersrand, South Africa, 351

Woden, German god, 13

Wolff, Hendrik, 244

Wollaston, Dr William Hyde, 28

Wolverhampton, England, 47

Women’s Association of Commerce of the United States, 129

Woodhams, Grant, 290, 292

Woodridge electoral district, Queensland, 274

Woodruff, Troy, 187-188

World Bank data, 76, 77, 95, 112, 118, 178, 180, 189, 219, 223, 224, 226

World calendar, 12, 13

World War I / Great War, 49, 52-62, 63, 92, 100, 102, 105, 109, 111, 113, 116, 119, 123, 126, 129, 133, 144, 146, 194, 196, 203, 216, 232, 245, 248, 251, 264, 282, 300, 316, 317, 345, 346, 361, 398

World War II, 65-68, 78, 90, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 147-154, 155, 165, 167, 177, 184, 194, 205, 218, 222, 232, 235, 241, 249, 259, 265, 282, 307, 313, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 326, 327, 332, 345, 346, 347, 350, 354, 355, 359, 361, 396, 397, 398

World Wide School, 23

Worrall, Howard, 145

Worthington, A. C., 277

Wuhan, China, 319

Wyoming, US, 32, 140, 156, 168, 171, 192, 379

Xinjiang, China, 41

Yakutsk, Russia, 371

Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast, 365, 390

Yangon/Rangoon, Myanmar, 383

Yaoundé, Cameroon, 364, 389

Yaren, Nauru, 363, 380

Yarra, Victoria, 248

Yat-sen, Sun, 5

‘Year of Confusion’, Ancient Rome, 8

Yekaterinburg, Russia, 371

Yellow Emperor, 5

Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 194, 196, 211, 374

Yemen, 37, 316, 364, 385

Yeo, Tim, 84

Yerevan, Armenia, 325, 363, 381

Yeronga electoral district, Queensland, 275

Yes for Daylight Saving Society, Alberta, 212

Yom Kippur, 322

Yom Kippur War, 77, 176, 322

‘You Can Have It, I Don’t Want It, Daylight Saving Time’, song, 144

YouGov surveys, 88

Young, Alexander, 300

Young, Bill, 239

Young, C., 73

Yuan dynasty, China, 12

Yucatán, Mexico, 216, 217

Yugoslavia, 118

Yukon, Canada, 194, 201, 211, 374

Zacatecas, Mexico, 220

Zagreb, Croatia, 362, 369, 397

Zambezi, Namibia, 353

Zambia, 36, 345, 365, 392

Zedillo, Ernesto, 220

Zepeda, Jose Yamil Hallal, 220

Zeppelin airships, 55

Zhongshan Station, Chinese Antarctic base, 396

Zimbabwe, 36, 345, 365, 392

Zimmermann, Arthur, 126

zomertijd, 98

Zucchelli Station, Italian Antarctic base, 359, 360, 396

Zurich/Zürich, Switzerland, 372

 

 

Advertisements

Jesus or Lesus?

Tags

, , , , , , , , ,

(reposting this due to problem with title)

(originally published to Bubblews writing site in 2013, now gone)

What was that guy’s name again? It seems that folk at the Vatican weren’t too sure. It minted 6000 coins to commemorate the first anniversary of Francis as pope and somehow misspelled Jesus’ name.

When the mold was being prepared, it seems that someone got J and L mixed up. The letter L is similar to a back-to-front J, and perhaps someone was looking at that part of the mold from upside down or sideways and got it mixed up.

Anyway, the mint kind of blamed the molders, but you’d think it would have checked the mold before minting. On the other hand, it probably thought it didn’t need to check as this seems to be the first mistake in 600 years of making papal medals.

The coins were recalled before many were sold but apparently four of them remain out there. They could soon be worth a lot of money.

Foods to eat to reduce the chances of cancer

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

(originally published to Bubblews writing site, now gone)

There are of course no guarantees when it comes to something like avoiding cancer. But research has shown that you can reduce the risk of cancer by regularly eating fruit and vegetables. The best ones are those that are bright in color and to eat a good mixture of colors, including green, red, orange, yellow, purple and white. The less processed the food, the better. Whole grains, beans and nuts are good too. Also, go for lean meat or fish.

Less good are things like sugar, salt, certain fats, processed meat and large amounts of red meat. I remember reading a long time ago that the meat should only be a quarter of the meal. In some restaurants and households, it’s probably more like three-quarters or more.

Eating well can also reduce the likelihood of other illnesses, such as heart disease, diabetes and hypertension, and conditions that can lead to illness, such as obesity and high blood pressure. Tobacco and large amounts of alcohol don’t do wonders either. An overall moderate lifestyle helps too.

Genes obviously play a role too. But if you are in a high risk category due to family history, you can still reduce the risk of cancer through good eating and lifestyle choices.

Reviews on Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , ,

Thomas Pamphlett book cover

Here are some reviews on my nonfiction book (now an ebook by Australian eBook Publisher) on the early 19th century Australian convict, Thomas Pamphlett, Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway.  Details of where the ebook can be obtained (Amazon, Kobo, Apple and Google) follow the reviews. (Is line spacing at WordPress always just hit and miss?)

Reviews at Goodreads

or individual reviews …
By Valery · ★★★★★ · June 14, 2017 –
Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway by Chris Pearce tells an engaging story of history as well as crime and punishment in the not too distant past. Pamphlett began life in horrific conditions in Manchester, and worked as a brickmaker at a young age. The way in which Pearce… …more
By Maranda · ★★★☆☆ · June 14, 2017 –
To be totally honest, I had never actually heard of Thomas Pamphlett before reading this biography. “Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway”, written by Chris Pierce, is an interesting look at the life of a man that held plenty of adventure, danger, crime, and drama. This hist… …more

By Kimberly · ★★★★☆ · June 18, 2017 –
This is a well written non-fiction historical by Chris Pearce. The author does a wonderful job with providing details and really painting the locations and time frame for the reader. It wasn’t hard to really feel that you were part of the story as you read along. I found that I really further und… …more

By Grady · ★★★★★ · May 18, 2015 –
`Whether Pamphlett learnt much at school, other than fighting, swearing and thieving, is doubtful.’
As British-born Australian author Chris Pearce states in his book’s preface, `After 25 years in federal and state public service and 12.5 years in two stints in the real world, I am now writing eBoo… …more

By Kay · ★★★★★ · August 30, 2015 –
Excellent Historical Fiction
Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett is a historical/non fiction novel about Thomas Pamphlett. Author Chris Pearce does an excellent job describing his life and journey through his 25 days as a castaway. It’s truly a fascinating story, and you can tell that Pearce did… …more

By Veronica · ★★★★★ · July 09, 2015 –
Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett is a historical/non fiction novel about Thomas Pamphlett. Author Chris Pearce does an excellent job describing his life and journey through his 25 days as a castaway. It’s truly a fascinating story, and you can tell that Pearce did a lot of research for this b… …more

By Karen · ★★★★★ · August 31, 2015 –
Thomas Pamphlett was an Australian convict on a 25 day castaway journey. I have known a bit about him and his life, but was interested to learn more because I find his story fascinating. When I found this book by Chris Pearce, I just knew I had to read it. I am impressed by the author’s writing s… …more

By Marisa · ★★★★★ · May 19, 2015 –
Awesome story. I mean seriously? It is non-fiction and the man, Thomas Pamplette, gets 14 years in prison for stealing a horse. With laws now adays you can commit murder and get less. Very interesting read about our not so distant past!! …more

 

Reviews and letters relating to the print version (which is virtually the same as the ebook, including 100+ illustrations)

‘… he has done a mighty job.’ ‘I … found myself glued to the pages.’ Review by Terry O’Connor, The Courier-Mail, Brisbane, 4 December 1993, p.W7.

‘Pearce’s book is much more than a history of Pamphlett’s life. [There are] whole chapters on the life of the convicts, the background and the general history.’ ‘The book comes with an excellent index, is well produced and well illustrated.’ Review by National Trust magazine, Queensland, April 1994, p.23.

‘This is more than the story or family history of one convict.’ ‘The photographs are wonderful …’ ‘… this work provides a guide to what family historians can achieve. I thoroughly recommend it to any one with an interest in any aspect of the convict system of colonial Australia.’ Review in Descent, the journal of the Society of Australian Genealogists, Sydney, vol.24, no.2, June 1994, p.78.

‘Mr Pearce is to be congratulated on his work on Thomas Pamphlett. He has written a detailed book on an important figure in the establishment of Brisbane, made that information easily accessible and placed it in the wider context.’ Review by Dr Michael White, QC, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, vol.XV, no.9, November 1994, pp.455-456.

‘This book is not just good, it is outstanding …’ ‘Not only is it well written, it is easy to read, entertaining and above all accurate.’ ‘… it should find its place alongside other classics … such as … Robert Hughes’ [international best seller] The Fatal Shore.’ Letter from Mr John Sands, Wynnum Manly & Districts Historical Society, Brisbane, 25 March 1994.

‘What a magnificent book!’ ‘Congratulations! You’ve written one of the most fascinating, enlightening books I’ve read for such a long time …’ ‘[The book] was close to ‘can’t put down’ category for me – as it was for our daughter, who’s not a regular bookworm!!’ Letters from Mr Frank Warrick, newsreader, Seven Nightly News, TV Channel 7, Brisbane, 4 March and 5 May 1994.

‘… a beautiful production.’ ‘… you write very clearly and logically …’ ‘It would make a great TV series …’ Letter from best-selling author Mr Hugh Lunn, 21 March 1994.

‘[The book] is one of the most accurate accounts of our early history.’ ‘Chris Pearce skilfully contrasts the life of the Moreton Bay Aborigines with that of the white society of the day.’ ‘I take pleasure in recommending this book to anyone interested in Australian history and things Australian.’ Letter from Brisbane Lord Mayor Jim Soorley, 15 November 1993, who launched the book at City Hall.

‘Congratulations on a fine production.’ ‘I enjoyed the whole story very much, particularly the Moreton Bay section …’ ‘… the choice of illustrations was excellent.’ Letter from Ms Kathleen Hamey, the Balmain Association, Sydney, 14 January 1994.

Where to obtain a copy of the ebook

Amazon

Australia: https://www.amazon.com.au/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6

UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6

US: https://www.amazon.com/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6

Canada: https://www.amazon.ca/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6

NZ: as per US

Kobo Books

Australia: https://www.kobo.com/au/en/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett

UK: https://www.kobo.com/gb/en/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett

US: https://www.kobo.com/us/en/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett

Canada: https://www.kobo.com/ca/en/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett

NZ: https://www.kobo.com/nz/en/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett

Apple iTunes

Australia: https://itunes.apple.com/au/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

UK: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

US: https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

Canada: https://itunes.apple.com/ca/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

NZ: https://itunes.apple.com/nz/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

Google Play

https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Chris_Pearce_Through_the_Eyes_of_Thomas_Pamphlett?id=6uihBQAAQBAJ

Two excerpts

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2017/03/18/excerpt-from-through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett-convict-and-castaway-lost-in-an-unfamiliar-world/

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2015/12/24/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett-excerpt-finding-land/

Summary of the book

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2014/03/01/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett-convict-and-castaway/

New DST book

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy is the encyclopedia or bible of DST. It includes the origins of daylight saving time and the history of the scheme in every country that has ever used it, plus each state of the United States, Australia and Brazil and each Canadian province. Read about the battles between supporters and opponents, the efforts of daylight saving time champions, the chaotic situations that emerged particularly in the US and Canada, and all the pros and cons of the measure.

Here’s where to obtain a copy of the book:

Amazon

Australia: https://www.amazon.com.au/Great-Daylight-Saving-Time-Controversy-ebook/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7

Canada: https://www.amazon.ca/Great-Daylight-Saving-Time-Controversy-ebook/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7

NZ: as per US

UK: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Great-Daylight-Saving-Time-Controversy-ebook/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7

US: https://www.amazon.com/Great-Daylight-Saving-Time-Controversy-ebook/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7

Kobo Books

Australia: https://www.kobo.com/au/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

Canada: https://www.kobo.com/ca/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

NZ: https://www.kobo.com/nz/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

UK: https://www.kobo.com/gb/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

US: https://www.kobo.com/us/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

Apple iTunes

Australia: https://itunes.apple.com/au/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

Canada: https://itunes.apple.com/ca/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

NZ: https://itunes.apple.com/nz/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

UK: https://itunes.apple.com/gb/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

US: https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

Google

Australia: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=kpmbDgAAQBAJ&dq and click on Angus & Robertson

Or check out these articles:

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2017/06/09/how-daylight-saving-time-beat-terrorism/

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2017/05/28/daylight-saving-time-origins-and-history/

https://chrispearce52.wordpress.com/2017/05/05/five-star-review-on-the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/

DST book cover

How daylight saving time beat terrorism

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Here’s an excerpt from my ebook on daylight saving time, The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy. The excerpt shows how a potential terrorist incident was thwarted due to daylight saving time. It’s looking at DST in Israel, in the chapter on Asia. The book can be obtained from Amazon, Kobo, iTunes and Google.

“Daylight saving in Israel has been surrounded by controversy. The area known as the British Mandate for Palestine had continuous daylight saving from 1940 to 1942 and then each year from 1943 to 1946. Part of that region became Israel on 14 May 1948 and nine days later it put its clocks on two hours to conserve energy as it fought with Arab armies from the second day of its existence. Neighbours Jordan, which took the West Bank, and Egypt, which occupied Gaza, didn’t use daylight saving. Israel finished daylight saving after 1957 but used it again in 1974 and 1975 following the global energy crisis caused by the Yom Kippur War.

Israel has had summer time each year since 1985, but in the following year the interior minister, Yitzhak Peretz, who was opposed to daylight saving, wouldn’t sign the annual order. Ultra-Orthodox rabbis such as Peretz feared that daylight saving would mean poor attendance at morning prayers and that shops and other establishments would open before sundown on Saturday, desecrating the Sabbath. There was public uproar over his non-signing that included a demonstration outside his house and a legal battle that nearly got to the High Court. The communications minister, Amnon Rubenstein, said his department would use daylight saving in any case. Energy minister Moshe Shahal stated that the scheme saved Israel up to US$6 million a year in energy and reduced traffic fatalities. In a fiery Cabinet meeting on 20 April 1986, Peretz yelled at Shahal, a supporter of daylight saving: “You have been shedding my blood! You have been organizing a public lynch campaign against me! I would not be surprised if what you have done will lead to attempts on my life!”[1] Cabinet voted 11 to 6 to continue with daylight saving.

The start and end dates of the summer time period were the subject of much contention over many years. Most of the secular population preferred daylight saving to extend as long as possible, whereas most religious people didn’t want it to start until after Passover and wanted it finished before Yom Kippur. Dates for each of these events can vary by a month or so, which means the daylight saving span could be quite different from year to year. This made it difficult for trade, computer systems, and society in general. Economists estimated that Israel would save US$80 million a year by standardising its calendar.

In 2013, after plenty of haggling, disagreements and compromises over the decades, Israel set its daylight saving period as the Friday before the last Sunday in March until the last Sunday in October to align closely with Europe. The move hasn’t stopped the opponents of daylight saving, with member Yifat Kariv introducing a bill in October 2014 to cancel the measure. The interior ministry estimated in 2015 that summer time saved the Israeli economy NIS 300 million or US$75 million a year. The ministry also believed that people’s physical and mental health was improved and road safety was better.

Confusion still reigns over daylight saving times in the region as the Palestinian National Authority, formed in 1994, has set different start and finish dates to Israel. On one occasion, the disparity was a blessing. In September 1999, four young Israeli Arabs received two packages of explosives set by Palestinian bomb makers to blow up on 5 September at 6:30 p.m. Two of the men drove a car with one of the devices to Haifa and the other pair with the second package in another car to Tiberias. One man from each team was to board a bus from each city to Jerusalem with the bomb package to go off during the trip, but to disembark part way and rejoin their accomplice in the car, leaving the bag on the bus. The first pair had parked their car, and one man had got out, while the other two were still driving to their initial destination when the bombs exploded, at 5:30 p.m., killing three of the terrorists. They had been operating on Israeli time, which had gone back an hour after daylight saving finished on 3 September, but the bomb makers had used Palestinian time, which was still an hour ahead until 15 October. The lives of perhaps several dozen innocent passengers on two buses were spared.”

[1] Michael Ross, “Daylight time provokes Israel’s religious right”, Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, California, United States, 18 May 1986, at http://articles.latimes.com/1986-05-18/news/mn-20958_1_daylight-saving-time

DST book cover

Daylight saving time: origins and history

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

I posted the following article on daylight saving time on LinkedIn a few days ago …

Nearly everyone has a view on daylight saving time. They either hate it or they’re okay with it. The views of those who hate it are usually stronger than those who like it. But how did it all start? The idea for daylight saving first came from Benjamin Franklin in 1784 when he recommended that Parisians go to bed earlier and get up earlier, thereby using more natural light and saving on candles. He didn’t suggest changing the clock. Nor did he use the term ‘daylight saving’. Standard time was still best part of a century away, let alone daylight saving time. 

It was the railways that forced the introduction of standard time in the 19th century. Trains had to run to a set timetable rather than local time which differed slightly from one town to the next. Railway companies in the UK decided to use Greenwich time which had been used for navigation and astronomy since 1675. Then the US came up with uniform time zones for its railroads. Nearly everyone in both countries and many other nations soon followed railway time. Governments caught up later, eventually legislating for standard time. 

Before long, there were proposals to shift the clock forward to take advantage of extra daylight late in the day for gardening, cricket and other activities, and to save on artificial light. The first person to suggest this was New Zealand postal clerk George Hudson in 1895. He advocated a two hour clock change in the warmer months and called the scheme seasonal time. But there wasn’t much interest and he didn’t pursue it.  

Ten years later, English builder William Willett began developing a plan to shift some of the early morning daylight to later in the day to allow people more exercise and recreation and to save power. He was relentless in his efforts to promote his plan and get it accepted, writing to all politicians and hundreds of businesses and councils. He produced 19 editions of his booklet, The Waste of Daylight, and toured the land promoting his scheme, all at his own expense. He got a lot of support but also plenty of opposition from farmers, international traders, some other businesses, media, railways and scientists. 

The term daylight saving was probably coined by Robert Pearce, member for Leek, Staffordshire, who had the first bill for the scheme, the Daylight Saving Bill, in 1908. After eight years of parliamentary bills, daylight saving finally became a reality in 1916 in the middle of World War I, not first in the UK but in Germany. The primary reason countries adopted the measure was to save fuel for the war effort and by 1918, 27 countries on both sides of the war were using it although Australia had already abandoned it in 1917. Many discarded the scheme after the war. Only 14 countries still had daylight saving in 1922. 

In the interwar period, daylight saving time in the US and Canada was up to the states/provinces, counties, and cities and towns, starting one of the most chaotic periods of daylight saving ever. In many areas, a state might legislate for either standard or daylight time while counties and cities often did the opposite. Businesses and individuals would end up choosing for themselves. Many court cases were fought over trying to decide the time. In some places, most factories, shops and local transport might be on daylight saving time and most churches, schools, banks and long distance trains on standard time. People in the same building were often on different times as were people in the same household with the father’s employer using daylight saving, the children’s school on standard time and the mother on both times.  

World War II saw many countries take up daylight saving time again to save energy. Sixty-two nations had it in 1942, including Australia. The number fell away to 13 in 1950, 14 in 1960 and 16 in 1970. Clock chaos returned in postwar US until daylight saving went national in 1967. The oil crises of the 1970s meant 48 countries had daylight saving by 1980, increasing to 75 in 1990. The main reason for daylight saving changed from conserving fuel to lifestyle with many people enjoying lighter evenings for shopping, recreation and sport. A total of 63 countries put clocks forward in 2016, down from 67 in 2000 and 2010. A number of Asian, African and South American countries have dropped out in recent decades. 

Controversies continue with the measure. In broad terms, city people like daylight saving and rural people don’t. In the US, all states except Hawaii and most of Arizona have the scheme although about half the states had bills in their legislatures in 2015 or 2016 seeking exemption from daylight saving. None has been passed so far. In recent years, most Britons have wanted single double summer time although no bill has got through both houses with Scotland being a sticking point. Australia seems very unlikely to ever have national daylight saving time again as Queensland and Western Australia are opposed to the scheme although the issue keeps coming up in both states. 

My new book on daylight saving time, The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy, is now available at Amazon (https://www.amazon.com/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7), Kobo, Apple and Google.

DST book cover

Five star review on The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy

Tags

, , ,

An excellent five star review on my ebook, The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy, has been posted at Amazon. Grady Harp says: “Finally, in this learned book, Chris Pearce enlightens us, presents both sides of the fence of those who find it beneficial and those who wish it would go away!” The reviewer describes the book as a “navigable treatise on the history of and the value and frustrations of daylight saving time.”

He calls it a “comprehensive book” and states that: “Through the use of extensive research (all backed by source references throughout), tables, illustrations, and some fine journalistic quips Chris walks us through the enigma of this controversial manipulation of mind and time.”

This is the reviewer’s concluding comment: “Informative and even entertaining, this is the ‘bible’ for the topic of Daylight saving time.”

See Grady’s full review at Amazon US (https://www.amazon.com/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7) and UK (https://www.amazon.co.uk/Great-Daylight-Saving-Time-Controversy-ebook/dp/B06Y2R5KQ7/ref=sr_1_6?ie=UTF8&qid=1491925660&sr=8-6&keywords=daylight+saving+time+book).

DST book cover

The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

My latest ebook, The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy, has just been published by Australian eBook Publisher. It’s available at the various Amazon sites, Kobo, Apple and Google. See links below (Amazon links come up as images; the first one is the Australian site and the second one is the US site).

The book examines the origins of daylight saving, including the historical development of calendars, clocks, standard time, and the idea of changing the clock to give more daylight late in the day. It looks at the history of daylight saving in every country that has ever used the measure. It also analyses daylight saving in each state of the US, Australia and Brazil, and each Canadian province.

It features many intriguing and often prolonged battles between advocates and critics of daylight saving in countries around the world, as well as lighter moments. It highlights the determination of daylight saving time champions such as the UK’s William Willett, the US’s Robert Garland and Harley Staggers, New Zealand’s Thomas Sidey and Tasmania’s John Steer. It delves into the chaotic daylight saving situations that emerged, notably in the US and Canada, but also elsewhere. Every country and sometimes each state has a different and usually controversial story to tell.

See the contents page of the ebook below. Length is about 400 pages in Word/pdf format.

DST book cover

Contents:

Preface

Part I: Origins of daylight saving time

1   Calendar chaos

2   Counting the hours

3   Benjamin Franklin’s humour

4   Railways impose their time

5   William Willett’s dream

Part II: Daylight saving in UK and Europe

6   Wartime imperatives

7   United Kingdom sticks with daylight saving

8   UK’s single double summer time saga

9   Western Europe well ahead of the sun

10  Mixed feelings in rest of Europe

Part III: Daylight saving in North America

11  United States adopts measure late

12  Daylight saving mayhem

13  What’s the time? You choose

14  National daylight saving again

15  Canadian clock chaos

16  Saving daylight in deserts and on tropical islands

Part IV: Daylight saving in Australia and NZ

17  Apple Isle leads the way

18  Southern states in and out of sync

19  Contentious in the Sunshine State

20  Daylight saving sets in the west

21  The long road to daylight saving across the ditch

Part V: Daylight saving in the rest of the world

22  Asian countries opting out

23  No longer popular in South America

24  Never favoured in Africa

25  Antarctica: Daylight saving without daylight

Future of daylight saving time

Notes

Appendix: Daylight saving by country and state by year

Links:

https://geo.itunes.apple.com/us/book/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy/id1224081657?mt=11

https://www.kobo.com/au/en/ebook/the-great-daylight-saving-time-controversy

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=kpmbDgAAQBAJ&dq=%22great+daylight+saving+time+controversy%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Publisher:

http://www.australianebookpublisher.com.au/

 

Excerpt from Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway – Lost in an unfamiliar world

Tags

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Here’s another excerpt from my nonfiction book on Australian convict Thomas Pamphlett, Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway. The three cedar fetchers, ex-convicts Richard Parsons and Pamphlett and convict John Finnegan, are trying to head north to get back to Sydney not realising that Sydney is over 500 miles to the south. They must get around Moreton Bay, the site of today’s city of Brisbane, before resuming their journey to the north. They are at the southern end of Moreton Island looking across to Stradbroke Island …

Thomas Pamphlett book cover

Early next morning the castaways built a large fire on the sand directly opposite the spot where they had seen fires the previous evening. They hoped the sight of smoke would attract the attention of someone. It did. Very soon they saw an Aborigine in a large canoe making his way through the fast-moving water towards them. As he drew closer the cedar fetchers decided to watch from behind the hill so as not to scare their potential benefactor. He dragged his canoe up from the waterline and headed straight for their fire. When the three whites came out of hiding he took one look at the dokkai [ghostly figures; white men] and, fearing for his life, scampered back to his boat, leapt in and paddled furiously away, shouting and screaming at the top of his voice. His reaction was the same as the family who fled into the bush near Cape Moreton.

Meanwhile they noticed another canoe being launched from the opposite shore by two men. The pair in this boat met with the frightened man in the middle of the channel. Both canoes then ventured in the direction of the ghosts. Pamphlett, Finnegan and Parsons remained by their fire, lest they should startle them further. Beaching their canoes they gazed up at the strangers from a safe distance, possibly looking for characteristics of dead relatives. Returning to their boats they semaphored with pieces of bark, which doubled as paddles, across the South Passage. The whites saw in the distance other members of the group pushing off from the beach in two more canoes, five or six men in each. Would one of these men recognise the three bloodless souls by the fire?

The convoy landed. The entire party of about 14 timid, unarmed men from Stradbroke’s Nunukul clan crept towards the castaways around the fire. They stopped short, huddling in a group. Finally, one man overcame his trepidation, venturing slowly up to the fire. Perhaps he saw a resemblance to a brother or other relative in one of the three. The cedar cutters beckoned the others to join them. The Aborigines responded by encircling the visitors, who were no doubt praying this multitude of local inhabitants would recognise them as deceased tribal members. A dokkai not recognised as one of the clan could be denounced as bad and subsequently killed. A quick-thinking Richard Parsons produced the scissors and commenced to snip the long beards of the Stradbroke Islanders. This appeared to amuse them immensely, each lining up for a trim.

An hour or so later the now short-bearded Nunukul suddenly got up and prepared to leave. Sensing an immediate departure the three hoisted their flourbags onto their shoulders and gathered up their few possessions, automatically assuming the Aborigines would take them across the channel. However, it seems the three ghosts had not proved to be relatives and, when the novelty of barber had worn off, they were most anxious to return to their home on the opposite shore. But the castaways were desperate to get to Illawarra and then back to their homes on the Hawkesbury. They raced the Nunukul down to the water hoping to secure one of the canoes. Laden with their flour and other items they were beaten by the nimble Aborigines who clambered into their boats and retreated hastily into the channel, leaving them behind.

Standing on the beach watching the Aborigines paddle madly over the water, they began to wonder whether they would ever get off the island. With their food supply rapidly diminishing, the forlorn trio shuffled back along the western side of the island a mile or two to some unoccupied huts they had seen on their way to its southern tip.

They spent a dismal night in these quarters before returning to Reeders Point the following morning, hoping to entice the Nunukul to take them across the passage. On reaching the point they saw an abandoned canoe lying on the sand. It was the same one which had been used by the first man to cross the channel the previous day. Next they sighted two Aborigines strolling up the beach on the ocean side of the island in the direction of the place they were shipwrecked 10 days beforehand. The pair may have been planning to visit friends and relatives in the Ngugi clan, although it is quite likely they were seeking the three white strangers, whose characteristics they may finally have remembered.

As the two Aboriginal men did not seem to notice them they hurried to the canoe, throwing their gear into it. They were about to push off when they realised the flimsy craft might not support the weight of three large men and their luggage. After some consultation Pamphlett agreed to stay behind, to be collected in a few hours either by Parsons or Finnegan. Pamphlett climbed the sandhill to watch as his colleagues struggled with crude bark paddles to keep the boat on course in the strong current. He could still see them as they approached land on the other side, numerous Aborigines wading out through the shallows towards them. He thought they might prove hostile and spear his friends to death. A great number of them surrounded the canoe. The whole party, Finnegan and Parsons somewhere in its midst, proceeded up the beach and soon disappeared into the bush behind the foreshore.

Pamphlett sat alone on the sand dune at Reeders Point, waiting, constantly expecting one or the other to return in a canoe to fetch him. He waited till dark, but could see no sign of life on the opposite bank. Dejectedly, he plodded back to the well they had found on their first day at the point and spent a restless night there, wondering the fate of his friends.

In the morning he set about restoking the fire on the beach in the hope someone would come for him. He was again disappointed at not seeing a single person on the opposite beach. By mid afternoon he resigned himself to the worst – that he might never see his companions again or find a way off the island he was stranded on. He had no flour, which had been his only supply of food. Soon he would die. He would perish in this lonely land. He possessed neither the skills nor the equipment to catch any of the wide variety of fish which swarmed in the subtropical sea. Nor did he know where to find the abundance of small animals and edible plant life on the island itself. He would starve in a land of plenty, unless the Aborigines killed him first.

(end of excerpt)

Through the Eyes of Thomas Pamphlett: Convict and Castaway is available at Amazon, Google Play, Apple iTunes and Kobo Books:

http://www.amazon.com.au/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6/ref=pd_rhf_pe_p_img_1

http://www.amazon.com/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6/ref=tmm_kin_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&sr=&qid=

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Through-Eyes-Thomas-Pamphlett-Castaway-ebook/dp/B00QHEGGA6/ref=pd_rhf_gw_p_img_1

https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Chris_Pearce_Through_the_Eyes_of_Thomas_Pamphlett?id=6uihBQAAQBAJ

https://itunes.apple.com/au/book/through-eyes-thomas-pamphlett/id946797962?mt=11&ign-mpt=uo%3D4

https://store.kobobooks.com/en-US/ebook/through-the-eyes-of-thomas-pamphlett?bookId=5f6a77ed-aaa5-4d63-91ab-e036c185f737